«ЛУГАНСЬКОГО НАЦІОНАЛЬНОГО УНІВЕРСИТЕТУ ІМЕНІ ТАРАСА ШЕВЧЕНКА № 14 (249) ЛИПЕНЬ ВІСНИК ЛУГАНСЬКОГО НАЦІОНАЛЬНОГО УНІВЕРСИТЕТУ ІМЕНІ ТАРАСА ШЕВЧЕНКА ФІЛОЛОГІЧНІ НАУКИ № 14 (249) липень ...»
Semantic transposition is exactly that mechanism of nominative processes which works on the principle of association. As a rule the new nominations are stylistically coloured but this fact never means that they must be regarded only as stylistic devices: originality and novelty of a unit alongside with other factors stimulate also the process of borrowing foreign words. Informal speech is that sphere where new nominations on ready lexical material may be found more than frequently. And when developing new meanings a lexical unit retains its contensive structure." A word may be both literal and metaphoric simultaneously, just as it may simultaneously support many different metaphors, may serve to focus into one meaning many different meanings"  and this specific property exposing nothing more but
very nature of a linguistic sign, its asymmetry:
- "I could build you a teaser here, said Bosinney, breaking the silence at last. "I daresay', replied Soames dryly. "You haven’t to pay first" /J.Galswothy, The Man/
- The pavement were all eyes and thick jostling bodies. / J. Priestly,The Angel Pavement/.
Enrichment of vocabulary by means of a semantic transposition may result in the units, different semantically and structurally but belonging to the same lexicological level. The units of secondary nomination may by subdivided into two large classes: the units of non-direct nomination: here we deal with lexical units acquiring their new stylistic meaning, and those of indirect nomination presented with phraseological units with their own semantic structure.
There are many specific types of a semantic change brought about by shifting relations between 'sign' and 'referent'. Attempts to classify them under mutually exclusive headings are hopeless, because more than one factor often comes into a play in a given instance and the results of the change may be variously described rather frequently. Contamination of the two stylistic components is not rare: This train was still roaring across the screen when Turgis […] heard a voice… (J. Priestly, The Angel Pavement). In this example we may see that the denotative, central meaning of a verb to roar – "to emit the loud, deep sound characteristic of some savage or enraged beasts, e.g. a lion or bull"- shifts gradually to the significative one "the loud or boisterous sound of talking singing, etc.," and then is applied to inanimate things, as 'cars roaring past their houses". The last case is a type of cognitive metaphor.
Not less interesting is to understand how the concepts within a new nominator take shape in a case of morphological transposition and here we resort to the onomaciological analysis the essence of which lies in stating the Вісник ЛНУ імені Тараса Шевченка № 14 (249), 2012_______________
types of relations between the fact of reality and a fact of language. This analysis is most explicit and helpful in relation to a derivative as a result of morphological transposition. In the units of primary nomination of a motivated type with the help of this analysis a new meaning can be easily deduced. We call these units as derivatives the properties of which are provided with their constituents as ready units and the rule applied. In other words, derivatives onomaciologically are designations of the unknown through the known: they combine a new experience with an old one in a discrete form. A derivative as a result of the nominative act helps to associate a designated object of reality, or action, or property with those, known from preceding experience. It is easy to see that a communicative principle of actual division works here as successfully as in syntactic analysis.
With every formal operation – derivational step – only two constituents enter into relations of derivativeness making by this an onomaciological structure, in which one of the constituents makes the basis of nomination, another renders some new information. As ‘the known – ‘theme’ we distinguish that constituent in a derivative structure which functionally makes the basis of nomination /onomaciological basis – OB/ reflecting some human experience. In a syntagmatic sequence ‘determinant/ determinatum’ in most cases it occupies the latter position. Every new information – ‘the unknown – rheme’ we call as the onomaciological sign / OS / and this is a ‘determinant’.
This method helps to overcome a purely descriptive approach to the word study /morphemic analysis/ and show how all word-forming procedures take place in the acts of communication.
Such approach makes it easy to deduce the meaning of a derivative resulting the acts of derivation with the help of reconstruction. In language all processes of derivation follow the rule of analogy which is realized with the help of a pattern. Patterning is a universal fact in human life and central to human behavior, so it is not surprising that in our speech we use this principle of word-formimg so widely. Every new fact can be compared with the analogous fact in the past and by this disposed in a certain niche of our memory. So, the law of analogy is a leading principle in patterning language facts because always plays an important role ‘in preservation or redistribution of linguistic material and uses old material for its innovation’. To see how a new nominative unit got its present shape, we must trace all the derivational steps in their sequence, in other words, reconstruct all the stages of its
E.g.: the compound derivative ’honeymooner’:
OB OS – derivational act of conversion, in which as the basis of nomination we take all the semantic paradigm of a starting word, while the resulting unit manifests the narrowed meaning and fulfils the function of an onomaciological sign;
It is worth mentioning that in cases of suffixation and postpositive agglutination derivational morphemes fulfill the classifying function and on this ground make the onomaciological basis of a derivative word. It is explained by the fact that in a composition of the whole onomaciological structure they are perceived as already known general information of a lexicogrammatical class a nominator in question is to be referred to.
E.g.: In fact I early took in that I was unlovable. Nobody singled me out, nobody gave me their attention.
R1 V + -able = Adj R2 un- + Adj = Adj In a room he could see little marble-topped tables with wirework legs.
In cases of prefixation and prepositive agglutination the role of a basis belongs to a stem on account of their modifying function: the prefixes and prepositive agglutinators do not change the lexico-grammatical status of a
derivative but only attach some shade to the whole meaning:
E.g.: lovable unlovable understand misunderstand trust distrust wellbred illbred In case of composition compound derivatives display two types of semantic redistribution in their onomaciological structure known as endocentric and exocentric.
The first type is presented with a syntagmatic sequence ‘determinant/determinatum’ fully correlating with communicative principle ‘
onomaciological sign/onomaciological basis’:
E.g.: toothpowder tooth /OS/ + Powder /OB/ Вісник ЛНУ імені Тараса Шевченка № 14 (249), 2012_______________
The second type includes the coinages of idiomatic type, though their motivation is to a degree obscure, and the onomaciological basis is to be sought for beyond the structure of a derivative: a prompt may follow either on the hand of a distribution, or found by reference to some socio-historic facts by means of a procedure of semaciological analysis which works very well in cases of a semantic transposition.
By their onomaciological structure the compounds of idiomatic type are exocentric and are regarded as the units of indirect nomination, realizing
semantics through some indirect, contiguous notions:
‘One of his favourite haunts was Tony's on 52-nd Street. Tony's was superficially indistinguishable from an ordinary speakeasy. (J. Priestly, The Angel Pavement.).
In the text is meant the place where alcoholic drink was sold illegally.
To understand this coinage right we appeal to extralinguistic facts, as here 'the law of prohibition" in USA in the twenties of the 20 century.
Language plays a great role in verbalizing the conceptual entities in a form of nominative units. And nomination is that range of language that represents reality through reflective ability of human consciousness generalizing the existing notions and establishing the new ones. As a result of nomination a fragment of reality is given a name-label. The fragment of reality, being reflected and objectified, makes a nominative meaning. The essence of language nomination lies in the fact that in the course of it we simultaneously render the information about something and designate this something; so communication and designation make the two sides of the same process.
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Хомяк Н. В. Деякі аспекти утворення мовленевих актів Мова відіграє величезну роль у процесах вербалізації концептуальної реальності у вигляді номінативних знаків, оскільки номінація являє собою ту сферу мови, яка репрезентує реальність за допомогою рефлекторної особливості людської свідомості, узагальнюючи вже існуючі поняття і створюючи нові. Відбитий і об’єктивований образ об’єкта реальності і являє собою номінативне значення як одночасний результат мовленнєвої, комунікативної та свідомої, когнітивної діяльності людини. У статті описано механізм ономасіологіческого процесу для лексичних одиниць первинної та вторинної номінації.
Ключові слова: лексичні одиниці, номінація, ономасіологія, мовна та когнітивна діяльність.