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Kireienko K. V. Concept love in the Ukrainian folkloremagical world model The article focuses on the cognitive analysis of Ukrainian love spells for the purpose of determination of conceptual features of love in the sacred texts of the verbal magic tradition. The author of the article concludes that in Ukrainian folklore and magical view of the world love is primarily dependence, suffering (crying and captivity), and disease (shaking and trembling, heaviness, pain, anxiety, insomnia, apathy, lack of appetite and ³ 14 (249), 2012_______________

thirst, incurability, madness, and death), and only then it is tenderness, kindness, and benevolence. The article focuses on the cognitive analysis of Ukrainian love spells for the purpose of determination of conceptual features of love in the sacred texts of the verbal magic tradition.

Key words: verbal magic, spells, folklore, world model, conceptual analysis.

19.03.2012 25.05.2012 811 111 371


The relations of language and world make the essence of a global language function representation of thinking in a process of communication.

The real functioning of language presents a ceaseless process of verbal communication of the people, so language becomes a necessary mechanism for human society to accumulate knowledge and experience and pass them to oncoming generations.

The process of thinking is realized on the basis of words and sentences as empirical, material form of ideal reality. Natural language is not only the means of cognition the environment. Every idea being materialized in a form of any meaningful unit of a language hierarchy takes part in the process of thinking. That is why language and meaning are the two closely interrelated notions. The opinion that the notion of language is to a certain degree a notion of meaning and every theory which ignores the semantic aspect of language cannot be a theory of language [1; 2] is fully justified and really, it is hardly possible to exclude the semantic aspect from linguistic studies, and all investigations concerning language appeal to semantics in evident or latent form.

Language generalizes and differentiates the properties and relations of the outside world, keeps social and historical information reflected in names, at the same time satisfying the needs of the people, expressing all emphatic and pragmatic peculiarities pertaining to a communicative act.

Human language is a functional system of semiotic nature which is intentionally used by the humans as a perfect means of communication and cognition which within language make the inseparable and interacting whole.

Alongside these two functions and as their part and parcel there works the nominative function as the reflection of our thinking processes, and here it

³ 14 (249), 2012_______________

would be more justified to speak sooner on the unity of language three planes

Language, Thought and Speech.

The origin of new meanings or new nominative structures may take place differently, depending on the type of the onomaciological process which falls into two stages transposition and identification.

At present it is common to recognize that the contensive part of language structure reflects all aspects of language functioning with reference to the real and imaginary facts of life which get their names in communicative acts. Such position is a tribute to a long tradition of semantic and communicative research in world linguistics.

The informative aspect of language is its semantic sphere, in a broad sense, and very particular realization of a nominative unit, mostly a word, relates to the nominative sphere providing first and foremost function of language to represent a human thought. So, nomination presents both the relation of language units to extralinguistic facts and situations, and the relation to the objects of the outside world presented in a mental sphere of a human in a form of images involving all the complex of features of a referent.

In a broad sense the informative aspect of language makes its semantic sphere, and a very particular realization of a linguistic unit, mostly a word, relates to the nominative sphere providing first and foremost function of language to represent a human thought. The process of nomination is simultaneously presented with the relation of language units to the extralinguistic facts and situations, and their relation to the objects of the outside world imprinted in a mental sphere of a human in a form of images involving all the complex of features of a referent. In the whole the features of a referent, reflected in our consciousness, make a semantic paradigm or imageschema [Johnson] with the components of a different level of abstraction. The number of prognostic image-schemas to fix and contain the imprints of new facts of reality is almost ceaseless on that ground that the possibilities of human cognition constantly grow. Though not so long ago in linguistic papers there reigned the term paradigmatic sphere, which replaced that of association given be Saussure [3] with the paradigms or associative families in which a particular word is like a centre of a constellation or the point of convergence of an indefinite number of coordinated terms that float around within one or more associated series, now it is common to regard the informative potential in a conceptual sphere of human mind as the domain of cognitive semantics. The notion of a term image schema[4] is equipotent to that as a paradigm, or semantic field, or frame, or prototype [5], all of them

reflecting the systemic relations of the elements constituting any language:

An image schema is a recurring structure of or within our cognitive processes, which establishes patterns of understanding and reasoning. Image schemas emerge from our bodily interactions, linguistic experience and historical context [4]. Especially Johnson maintained that image schema are regularly recurring embodied patterns of experience.

³ 14 (249), 2012_______________

In contemporary cognitive linguistics, an image schema is considered as an embodied prelinguistic structure of experience that motivates conceptual metaphor mappings. Evidence for image schemas is drawn from a number of related disciplines, including work on cross-modal cognition in psychology, from spatial cognition in both linguistics and psychology, and from neuroscience. The term prelinguistic structure to our mind presents the same notion as presemantics [6] and it seems reasonable to draw the line of demarcation between these two notions. When semantics describes the linguistic signs in relation to their referents and this relation is disposed in a human mind in a shape of a reflective system, there arises the need to realize all the potential of language facts to a more or less degree connected with the given act of description and nomination. In fact, this is the type of a paradigmatic description of linguistic signs of a certain class which with the necessity precedes the recognition of a unit in question. In other words, the content part of a sign gives a single representation of a referent alongside all the varieties of relations and interrelations of this referent in the outside world, that is why the process of a semantic interpretation of a linguistic sign makes simultaneously the sum of sense and cognition. So it comes out that whatever

is the terminological label, the essence of the phenomenon remains the same:

the contensive or informative basis of any language fact is formed through the conceptual procedures of reflection, generalization and thinking as part and parcel of cognitive processes.

As a vocabulary is not homogeneous in its composition a message may include the words of different stylistic value what first of all depends on a role status of interlocutors and speech situation. Here also would be right to emphasize the character of a communicative act as the first signal to a nominative process: exactly in conditions of a speech act a new nominative unit may arise, or the old one may develop its meaning in that direction which is in demand for a given situation and does not contradict to its semantic paradigm.

In agreement with our pattern of the meaning structure [7;8;9] the semantic load of a linguistic unit includes all lexico-semantic paradigm, i.e. all the aspects of a sign behaviour in different linguistic positions registered paradigmatically. Such paradigm includes obligatory positions as intralinguistic components of meaning, pertaining to the very nature of a linguistic unit and non-obligatory. imposed by the extralinguistic factors. The latter ones, in their turn, may with the time acquire their legitimate status in the composition of paradigmatic/schematic/conceptual meaning of one or another linguistic sign. It is worth to remark once again that every new nuance of a sign meaning depends on the internal paradigmatic and external syntagmatic factors. When represented for the first time in some new aspect of meaning the sign in question is simultaneously regarded as the result of a nominative act, so arises the nominative meaning as the fact of speech.

It is to remember that semantic paradigms / image schemas are dynamic embodied patterns and take place in and through time. Moreover, ³ 14 (249), 2012_______________

they are not simply visual but multi-modal patterns of experience. For instance, consider how the dynamic nature of the containment schema is

reflected in the various spatial senses of the English word out:

(1a) John went out of the room.

(1b) Mary got out of the car.

(1c) Spot jumped out of the pen.

In the most prototypical of such cases the landmark is a clearly defined container. However, out may also be used to indicate those cases where the trajector is a mass that spreads out, effectively expanding the area of the

containing landmark:

(2a) She poured out the beans.

(2b) Roll out the carpet.

(2c) Send out the troops.

Finally, out is also often used to describe motion along a linear path

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