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220]. How did a nation managed to succeed that way? Arthur M.Schlesinger in his article The Cult of Ethnicity gives the following account to the American phenomenon: the United States shaped a new national identity, and, thus, they evaded the challenges of a multinational society. The goal of the

³ 14 (249), 2012_______________

American concept is not to reserve old cultures, but to create a new American culture [12].

When a well-known American novelist Walker Percy was interviewed

what was it that disturbed him the most about America`s future, he responded:

I`m really scared that one day America with all its might, beauty and power will gradually decline to default and will collapse from within, collapse of its own fatigue, boredom, cynicism, greed and, finally, helplessness about great hardships [Ibid.]. As the conclusion, the critic states that the life of Americans will get better when they start practice such values as humbleness, nobility and spirituality.

A self-made man thrives in the American society; more than that, he produces a self-made world, the American artificial civilization. That means that Americans were not actually born there, they moved from England and created America of their own. As George Gachev states, Americans have a self-made world in which a human labor, not natural forces, prevails [1].

How? How do you do? these are the key questions of American English that focuses on how things actually work. A know-how principle originated from American English. Eventually, the titles of many manuals by Dale Carnegie all have a "How to style, e.g. How to Win Friends and Influence People", How to Change People without Giving Offense or Arousing Resentment, How to Develop Self-Confidence and Influence People by Public Speaking, How to Stop Worrying and Start Living, How to Make Our Listeners like Us. Such an approach laid the ground to an extreme pragmatism in human relations.

And finally, it is not incidental that a dollar is a symbol of America.

From the semiotic perspective, it is a vertical where a snake twists around a tree of life. If one looks at it from a horizontal perspective, he will be able to see a highway with a variety of roads. Thus, America is a country of highways and an American is a man in a car which serves as a house for him.

As we can see, the image of America in the American Literature of the th th 19 -20 centuries was transformed from the perception of America as a kind of deity to the total negation of its essence and representation of its deep cultural decline. In terms of multiculturalism the image of America acquires a hybridized form that is an interlacing of many-root cultural and language communities. In further research it would be prospective to study the image of America on the material of non-literary texts (the media, hypertext). For a non-American worldview it seems to be rather topical to investigate the American perception of the world from the standpoint of migrants, namely of the Ukrainian descent.

References

1. . . : / . . . . : , 1997. 676 .

2. . / . . - : ., 2000. 204 . 3. . / ³ 14 (249), 2012_______________

. // . 2000. 3. . 272 276.

4. Hoffmann G. American Spirit in Literature [Electronic source] / Gary Hoffmann. Access mode : http://www.rit.edu/~gdh8512/The% 20Ego/Articles/amerlitfinal.html. 5. . . . . / . . . : , 1997. 640 . 6. . . . ( ) / . . . . : , 1970. 210 . 7. . / . . ., . ., . ., . . . : - , 1962. 452 . 8. The Norton Anthology of American Literature. New-York : W.W. Norton & Company, 1995. 2724 p. 9. . . / . . // - . . , 25 27 1999 . ., 2000. . 177 182. 10. The Oxford Dictionary

of Phrase, Saying and Quotation / Ed. by Elizabeth Knowles. Oxford :

Oxford University Press, 1998. 694 p. 11. The McGraw-Hill Reader. Issues across the Disciplines / Ed. by Gilbert H. Muller. New-York, 2000.

12. Schlesinger A. M. The Cycles of American History / Arthur M. Schlesinger. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 1999. - 512 p.

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Stepykina T. V. Image of America in cultural and philosophical studies of the 19th-20th centuries The proposed article considers the dynamics of the image of America transformation in cultural and philosophical studies of American and nonAmerica scholars in a diachronic aspect. The task of the research is to trace changes that the image of America endured and how it was critically reflected in the cultural and philosophical discourse of the 19th-20th centuries. Our scientific concern will not only be the viewpoint of American artists and philosophers, but also the attitude to the image of America in cultural and philosophical texts of non-American critics. Examples of critical analysis are taken from works by Henry Thoreau, Ralph Emerson, Walt Whitman, Mark Twain, William Falkner, Katherine Lee Bates, Walker Percy.

Key words: literary image, cultural discourse, philosophical discourse, existential characteristics, American dream.

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