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Plakhotnuk N. O. Archetype of the word in modern agenda of philosophical anthropology The article deals with philosophic and culturogical approach to the interpretation of archetypes of culture and archetype of the word in particular.

It is also updated the problem of the archetype as the symbolic structure of culture that allows us to consider the theory of knowledge and cultural studies in their unity. The concepts of archetype is interested in culture as an universal feature of culture and symbolic form, and epistemology archetype draws in the extent to which it associates symbolic knowledge and the analysis of the national mentality.

Key words: category, archetype, ivariant, universalia, anthropocentrism.

14.03.2012 25.05.2012 ³ 14 (249), 2012_______________

821. 111(73)

   

IMAGE OF AMERICA IN CULTURAL AND PHILOSOPHICAL

STUDIES OF THE 19th-20th CENTURIES The aim of the proposed research is to reveal existential characteristics of a literary image of America and its transformation in cultural and philosophical discourse of the 19th-20th centuries. The given topic was introduced by a modern Russian culturologist George Gachev in his work National Mappings of the World: America in Contrast to Russia and Slavianhood and Jean Baudrillard in his philosophical essay Amerique [1;

2]. The articles by Alexej Ubogij On Metaphysics of an American Life Style and Gary Hoffmann American Spirit in Literature are devoted to the issue of explicating the inner nature of the image of America [3; 4]. The task of the research is to trace changes that the image of America endured and how it was critically reflected in the cultural and philosophical discourse of the 19th-20th centuries. Our scientific concern will not only be the viewpoint of American artists and philosophers, but also the attitude to the image of America in cultural and philosophical texts of non-American critics.

A general structure of image in all kinds of art comes of its doublecomponent structure which unite a sensitive image and idea that emerges from the last one. On the one hand, the artistic image is always something more than concrete and sensory objects property, its reflection. For instance, Nina Arutiunova notes that the Statue of Freedom doesnt itself create the image of freedom. It only embodies this image. On the other hand, an artistic image as a certain ideal and not only sensory structure is not a bare logical idea, as the idea itself does not exist. We cognize the meaning and the idea of the artistic image only in the form of its sensory image with which the idea combines into the unity [5, p.96-101].

According to Vadim Kozhinov, an image reflects the world in the process of creating a new subject. This specific reflection has an indispensable value. Not only a person who created the artistic image, tells about the sense of life, but the life itself, created once again in the substance of image as well.

The life is not only repeated in the image but it is also deeply displayed. An artist who is making the meaning similar to life, has to master this sense in a peculiar way [6, p. 70].

In the artistic image the world is assimilated in such a way that its cognition can not be limited to concrete time and space, to the given circumstances and object of reflection. Image is the main unit of the artistic message [7, p. 80-92].

With the currency of time optimism yielded to the opposite mood, in a way it defines a national spiritual condition till present. It is important to underline that no matter in what way the attitude to American Dream had been ³ 14 (249), 2012_______________

changing this myth itself cherished and is still cherishing American literature giving a peculiar mode to it.

When American writers of the mid-nineteenth century took stock of their country, and sometimes caught the contagion of an ebullient, expansionist mood that struck many observers as the dominant of that time, and even Henry Thoreau, the most relentless critic of the values of his society, insisted that to some extent he counted himself among those who find their encouragement and inspiration in precisely the present condition of things, and cherish it with the fondness and enthusiasm of lovers [8, p. 392]. But they often felt a profound alienation. Henry Emerson was a preacher who had renounced his pulpit, and the other great writers also preachers without pulpits devoted much of their artistic effort to analyzing conditions of life in America and to exhorting their fellow citizens to live more wisely.

Ralph Emerson sounded an alarm: Society everywhere is in conspiracy against the manhood of every one of its members. Society is a joint-stock company in which the members agree for the better securing of his bread to each share holder, to surrender the liberty and culture of the eater.

The virtue in most request is conformity [Ibid.]. In The Celestial Railroad Nathaniel Hawthorne satirically described the condition at the Vanity Fair of modern America, where there was a species of machine for the whole sale manufacture of industrial morality [Ibid., p. 392-393]. He went on: This excellent result is effected by societies for all manner of virtuous purposes;

with which has man merely to connect himself, throwing, as it were, his quota of virtue into the common stock; and the president and directors will take care that the aggregate amount be well applied [Ibid.]. Thoreau repeatedly satirized America as a nation of joiners that tried to force every newcomer to belong to their desperate odd-fellow society: to Thoreau, members of the Odd Fellows and other social organizations were simply not odd enough, not individual enough.

Tetiana Denisova writes in her article Mainstream and the context of multiculturalism: The American ideals are the unifying principles for the whole discourse of American literature. It is generally accepted that the philosophy of individualism and the American dream are the cornerstones of American social consciousness as well as the countrys leading tradition and the background of an American canon [9, p. 179]. Emerson with the theory of self-reliance, Whitman in his personalism reached the apogee of egalitarian individualism in the 19th century. In the times of modernism the American canon was expressed by many writers and William Faulkner explained it in his article On Privacy: This was the American dream: a sanctuary on the earth for individual man: a condition in which he could be free not only of the old established closed corporation hierarchies of the arbitrary power which had oppressed him as a mass but free of that mass into which the hierarchies of church and state has compressed and held him individually thrilled and individually impotent.

³ 14 (249), 2012_______________

We will establish a new land where man can assume that every individual man not the mass of men has an inalienable right to individual dignity and freedom within a fabric of individual carriage and honorable work and mutual responsibility [Ibid., p. 179-180].

Gary Hoffman in his article American Spirit in Literature considers and interprets the transformation of the image of America in the American literature and comes to a very specific conclusion. A discussion of the varying definitions of America in the American literature or America as Panphage searches denotations and connotations inherent in the word "America" in different works of American literature. The scholar supposes that they have a number of similarities and differences. Often, the definition of the word is not known at the beginning of a work and one of the thematic elements is the search for the true America, whatever it may be for the author in question.

Many American authors raise the question, "What is America?" and go about it in their own ways. This is, perhaps, the only common thing across a great variety of works in the collective body of the American literature: America as a concept means different things to different authors, and such a diversity of views is one of the most appealing aspects of it.



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