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Khomyak N. V. The mechanism of secondary nomination The aim of this article is to explain the mechanism of nominative processes, especially in a part concerning the acts of secondary nomination which result in stylistically-coloured units It is noted that the nominative activity is connected with the practical mastery, cognition and a reflection of objective and subjective persons world. Verbal signs as a means of storing in them imprinted extra-linguistic information, serve as a means of language thinking.

Key words: mechanism of nomination, nominative process, stylistically-coloured units.

09.02.2012 25.05.2012 ³ 14 (249), 2012_______________

   

The Bible is the greatest work in the world literature and this masterpiece has much more influence than even W. Shakespeare upon the written and spoken language of the English race. As a consequence, to study English literature without some general knowledge of the relation of the Bible to that literature would be to leave ones literary education very incomplete.

Every period of English literature shows some influence of Bible study (J. Adams, R. Bratcher, M. Coles, M. Forster, J. Green, W. Prindle, R. Sider, G. Zeolla, etc.), even from the old Anglo-Saxon days; and during the present year, the study has so little slackened that one constantly sees announcements of new works upon the literary elements of the Bible. Perhaps one of the best is Professor Moultons Modern Readers Bible, in which the literary side of the subject receives better consideration than in any other work of the kind published for general use [1]. K. Kyser says that with the use of Christian imagery, we can view the book in a different light. Biblical mythology has always been used to exalt the White races political agenda, it justifies their actions (for war), and gives them the authority to do so. However, she goes on to mention that it is particularly dangerous to believe in this [2, p. 889]. So, the actual problem of modern comparative literary criticism is the biblical interpretations functioning in world literature.

The main aim of the article is to demonstrate how the authors work advances the biblical intertextuality and the way of its using. The problem we are studying concerns some aspects of intertextual connection of M.

Ondaatjes novel The English Patient with the Bible. The object of our research is the aforementioned novel. The subject we chose is the reinterpretation of Biblical motifs and characters in M. Ondaatjes novel.

Many scholars (J. Boland, E. Edwards, B. Fledderus, J. Haswell, T. Kliman, S. Solecki etc.) have sought to examine M. Ondaatjes narrative crafts, and the ways in which the writer employs the thematic and formal freedom that the novel provides to successful effect.

³ 14 (249), 2012_______________

Philip Michael Ondaatje is one of the Canadian leading modern writers, whose works are very popular nowadays. He was born in Colombo, Shri Lanka (then Ceylon) in 1943 and moved to England in 1954.

M. Ondaatjes work includes fiction, autobiography, poetry, films. He has published 13 books of poetry, and won a lot of awards for his books. He is perhaps best known for his Booker Prize-winning The English Patient, which was adapted into an Academy-Award-winning film. This book shows the familiarity between text and reader, and allows the observation of intimacies between characters. The text must be read closely so that the biblical intertextuality to be identified.

As many scientists considered The English Patient an apocryphal story because of the storytelling, when every character is given the authority to tell his own story and the author refusing to privilege a single position of authorship, we should speak shortly about apocrypha. So, the term apocrypha is used with various meanings, including hidden, esoteric, spurious, of questionable authenticity, ancient Chinese revealed texts and objects and Christian texts that are not canonical. The word is originally Greek () and means those hidden away. Specifically, is the neuter plural of, an adjective related to the verb [infinitive: ] (apocriptein), to hide something away [3].

Through supplementation and intertextuality, when the writer is telling an apocryphal story, M. Ondaatje demonstrates how no story is told just once [4, p. 59].

The term intertextuality stems from the Tel Quel group of the late sixties. Launched by J. Kristeva, it was reworking and updating of M. Bakhtins concepts have decisively given a Bakhtian edge to many contemporary studies. Discourse lives, as it were, on the boundary between its own context and another, alien, context [5, p. 284]. So, his role of ideology in the promotion of discourse has contributed to the opening of new and interdisciplinary fields of research. The term intertextuality was taken up enthusiastically by R. Barthes and J. Derrida. They understood it not merely as the use of sources and allusions but as the idea that no text makes sense on its own, that every text is related to others of necessity, or more sweepingly, that every text is related to all others: One text reads another...

Each text is a machine with multiple reading heads for other texts [6, p.

107].

There are two methods for the literary study of any book the first being the study of its thought and emotion; the second only that of its workmanship. A student of literature should study some of the Bible from both points of view, and, of course, the same when he reads a book where the author uses the Bible as a precedential text.

First the precedential theory was proposed and theoretically proved by Russian scholar Yu. Karaulov in 1986. The precedential texts as he considers are ready-made, intellectual and emotional blocks, which are meaningful

³ 14 (249), 2012_______________

for one or another person in perceptional and emotional attitude and known enough in society, that is why they often used in communication [7, p. 155].

In the world literature there are a lot of precedential texts, which reecho in different works of literature. First of all, it is the Bible, Dantes, J. Goethes, M. Cervantess, W. Shakespears works and others. Not only authors works can be precedential, but myths, folk songs, tales and prayers.

The Russian scholar, philosopher and semiotician M. Bakhtin arguably offers us a model to anticipate M. Ondaatjes own form of novel writing. The conceptions links closely to M. Bakhtins idea of dialogism, which encapsulates his view of language and the novel as dialogic; bringing together various voices, speech patterns and dialects, social and ideological.



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