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The second group of products which abounds in Anglicisms is clothes, sports and leisure equipment. The reason for borrowing in this group is different. Almost all English words have German equivalents: Boots (Schuhe, Stiefel), Bag (Tasche), Shirt (Hemd), Style (Stil), Jacket (Jacke), Sleepwear (Schlafanzug), Pockets (Taschen), Trend-Comeback (Trend-Rckkehr), Print (Muster) Still, English words have a different stylistic implication, they function, first of all, as eye-catchers since they are short, compact and they create "better image" of products. Such words as Must-haves, Trendlooks, Cowboyhut, Desertboots, trendy, stylish, casual, Beautycentre, Runningshirt, Outfit, Fieldjacket are associated with sophisticated lifestyle and add an internationally recognized image to the products. Though some words in this sphere do not have (any) close equivalents: Weekender (small travel bag), Sweatshirt, Leggings, Fitnessschuhe, Sneakers, Paragliding, Wellnesscentre, Campingzelt. In the area of sport we also found examples: Bodybuilding, Bungy-jumping, Coach, Fitness, Jetboat, joggen, kicken, Rafting, Skateboard, Snowboard, Squash, etc.

By contrast, advertising sheets of food products, household attributes (decoration, gardening, tools, furniture, household utensils, etc.) are aimed at creating a positive image for traditionally high-quality "made in Germany" products and, thus, their ratio in the total is relatively low. Most of these products are German labels. Set, Service, Tipp, Hobby, Trend, Designer, Box, etc. are the most spread words in this group but the number of lexical units is rather restricted. Among food group we found Snack, Flakes, Chicken, ³ 14 (249), 2012_______________

crunchy, Drink, light, low-Calorie, Toast, Chips, Cookies, Energy Drink, light Cheese.

Another example of extralinguistic reasons for using English words can be found in the sphere of tourism. The tendency to use English as the international communication language is especially evident in this area.

Tourism is one of the most dynamically developing branches in the world economy and, thereby, subjected to cultural interference and direct contacts between countries. Being so, it demands from all employers involved, on the one hand, knowledge of a foreign language, mostly English. On the other hand, tourists travelling abroad need to be equipped with some English knowledge in order to be able to understand such words as Transfer, all inclusive, Check-in, Wellnesscenter, extra Servicegebhr, full board, Beach, Resort etc.

So, loan words in such spheres as leisure, sports, tourism, fashion, food are used because they are believed to give a better image of elegance, taste, sophistication or charm of those referred to and described, trigger positive stereotypes.

There is increasing evidence that the use of English in media discourse extends beyond established lexical borrowings to include nonce borrowings, phrases and whole sentences. In German media, code-switching into English appears in a variety of genres for a variety of purposes. Examples include commercial slogans or even complete advertisements, quotations or headlines in newspapers, interviews and reviews in music magazines, openings and closings in computer-mediated communication etc. [15; p.101]. In our research we found about fifty instances of such cases in the Focus magazine, some examples include: "British Workers first", "Buy American", "It's the economy, stupid", "made in Germany", "stressed-out-snackers", "adult time for adult crime", "licensed to steal (lizensiert zum Stehlen)", "Bad for good!", "Just relax!", "Understatement ist das oberste Gebot", "There is no better way to fly" (Lufthansa), "Weil es Jedermann's Business is" (Microsoft), "Rules are for fools", "Performance mit Stil" (Windows Mobile), "Inspire the Next" (Hitachi). Many of the commercial slogans belong to international companies, and there is a tendency not to translate them into the language of each country where the product is presented.

In many cases outdoor advertising also represents commercial slogans of companies, (e.g.: "Wella: Passionately professional"), other instances are names of places: "Management Trust Consultants GmbH", "Planet HairFactory: Life Style-Hair Design", "Tattoo Piercing", "STANTON to go", etc.

Shop-window inscriptions include: "This Easter put something SEXY in your basket!", "Fashion Sports", "H&M: Die Conscious Collection", "Last Minute", "Surf Stick".

Finally, menus and assortment in cafes, snack bars, bistros contain the names of products that are known internationally: Milkshake, Bacon, Toast, Chicken, Brownie, Smoothies, Iced Coffee, Big King, Double Cheeseburger, etc.

³ 14 (249), 2012_______________

Outdoor advertising and commercial slogans are supposed to be comprehensible for the most possible number of people and broadcast the message of the manufacturer. Numerous tourists who visit Germany should not have any difficulties in reading advertising or finding their way. Still, it often appears that these are the Germans who have difficulties in decoding the contents of the meaning conveyed, which sometimes also can be the purpose of the message sender. Endmark AG, a consulting company from Cologne, investigated the question, whether English "claims" are comprehensible at all.

The result bewildered even inveterate language purists: 85% of respondents failed to explain the short slogan "Be inspired" (Siemens mobile), 92% - "One Group. Multi Utilities" (RWE). A half of the tested people could only approximately adequately translate "Every time a good time" (McDonald's) and "There's no better way to fly" (Lufthansa). The rest failed the test. The experts assume difficulties simply with understanding the message of these slogans: However, the working hypothesis is that if English slogans are not understood correctly and lack emotional effect on consumers, they should at least arouse their interest [16].

All in all, an established group of widely used Anglicisms by different spheres can be outlined, which are likely to retain their present status in the German language and which will continue to enrich its vocabulary. Our conclusion therefore is that the influence of Anglo-American culture is especially evident in the area of social and cultural life, and with certainty will further continue to enter the German, if present international contacts are maintained. Nevertheless, no absolutely precise predictions can be made, because language is highly susceptible to political, economical, social and cultural changes.

References

1. Carstensen . Amerikanismen der deutschen Gegenwartssprache.

Entlehnungsvorgange und ihre stilistischen Aspekte:/ Broder Carstensen, Hans Galinsky. Heidelberg: Carl Winter Universittsverlag, 1967. 80 s.

2. Carstensen B. Englische Einflsse auf die deutsche Sprache nach 1945 / B. Carstensen. Heidelberg: Carl Winter Universittsverlag, 1965. 295 s.

3. Carstensen B. Zur Intensitt des englischen Einflusses auf die deutsche Pressesprache / B. Carstensen, H. Griesel, H.-G. Meyer. Muttersprache, 1972. 82(4). P. 238 243. 4. Busse U. German // English in Europe:/U.

Busse, Manfred Grlach. Oxford : Oxford univ. press:, 2002. S. 13 36.

5. Yang Wenliang. Anglizismen im Deutschen. Am Beispiel des Nachrichtenmagazins Der Spiegel: / W. Yang. Tubingen : Max Niemeyer Verlag, 1990. 237 s. 6. Onysko A. Anglicisms in German, Borrowing, Lexical Productivity and Written Codeswitching : / Alexander Onysko. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, 2007. 376 p. 7. Glahn R. Der Einfluss des Englischen auf die gesprochene deutsche Gegenwartssprache / R. Glahn. Frankfurt : Peter Lang, 2000. 215 s. 8. Haugen E. The analysis of linguistic borrowing / E. Haugen. Language 26. 2., 1950. P. 211 231. 9. Longman ³ 14 (249), 2012_______________

Dictionary of Contemporary English / Dell Summers. Longman: 2001. 1668 p. 10. Hilgendorf Susanne K. The impact of English in Germany / Susanne K. Hilgendorf // English Today. 1996. 47 (Vol. 12) No. 3. P.

3 14. 11. Hilgendorf, Susanne K. English in Germany: contact, spread and attitudes / Susanne Hilgendorg // World Englishes. 2007. Vol. 26. No. 2.

P.131 148. 12. Pfitzner J. Der Anglizismus im Deutschen. Ein Betrag zur Bestimmung seiner stilistischen Funktion in der heutigen Presse / J. Pfitzner. Stuttgart: J.B. Metzler Verlagsbuchhandlung, 1978. 254 p. 13. Phillipson R.

Englishization: one dimension of globalization / Robert Phillipson, Tore Skutnabb-Kangas / In Graddoll David & Ulrike H. Meinhof (eds.) // English in a changing world. Aila Review 13, 1999. P. 19 36. 14. Rebuck M. The Function of English Loanwords in Japanese / M. Rebuck. NUCB JLCC, 4, 2002. P. 53 64. 15. Androutsopoulos Jannis.

Deutsche Jugendsprache:

Untersuchung zu ihren Strukturen und Funktionen / Jannis Androutsopoulos Frankfurt a.Main. : Peter Lang 1998. 684 p. 16. Zur Wirkung englischer Werbeslogans. (Vorlesung. Dortmunder Universitt - 2005) [ ]/ Isabel Kick. 2005. : www.forschungstage.unidortmund.de 17. Das grosse Fremdwrterbuch: Herkunft u. Bedeutung der Fremdworter / red. Bearb. Brigitte Alsleben. Mannheim/Leipzig/Wien/Zurich: Dudenverlag, 2003. 1542 s.

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Rudakova T. O. Anglo-American borrowings in the modern German language: reasons and factors determining its intensity The article analyses Anglo-American borrowing and factors determining its functioning in the modern German language; it also studies the role of English as a donor-language for lexical borrowing at the present stage of globalization. The author also offers qualitative and quantitative analysis of extra- and intralinguistic reasons for borrowing in the German press and advertising. The object of this analysis is the printed German magazine Focus, a number of printed advertising materials, outdoor advertising and commercial slogans.

Key words: borrowing, Anglicism, extra-/intralinguistic reasons for borrowing, intensity.



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