«ЛУГАНСЬКОГО НАЦІОНАЛЬНОГО УНІВЕРСИТЕТУ ІМЕНІ ТАРАСА ШЕВЧЕНКА № 14 (249) ЛИПЕНЬ ВІСНИК ЛУГАНСЬКОГО НАЦІОНАЛЬНОГО УНІВЕРСИТЕТУ ІМЕНІ ТАРАСА ШЕВЧЕНКА ФІЛОЛОГІЧНІ НАУКИ № 14 (249) липень ...»
Conveying an American setting became especially a topical reason for borrowing after World War II, but it has not lost its significance at present. An example could be the newspaper language: readers might grasp the reality of a news story relating to a celebrity from the United States more easily when they perceive English words (Catwalk, Star, Breakthrough, Comeback).
Borrowing from English, German tends to brevity (the adaptation of single or two-syllable English words where multi-morphemic or compound German equivalents already exist). With its many multimorphemic compounds, German is subject to easy substitution for shorter English terms (e.g. Boom - Wirtschaftsaufschwung, Budget - Haushaltsplan, Campus Universittsgebude). Brevity decreases the space needed in the newspaper publication as well as the time it takes the journalist to write the article, and both of these result in a saving in costs. German lends itself particularly well to borrowing monosyllabic and disyllabic words from English for stylistic reasons. The example of Sex-appeal vs. geschlechtliche Anziehung clearly illustrates this argument. Upon examination of the data collected in this study, we found numerous borrowings whose German equivalents are much longer, which may have been borrowed for brevity reasons. Such cases are illustrated
in table 1:
Table 1 Length of English borrowings and their German equivalents English borrowing German equivalent 1 Fan Anhnger, Bewunderer, Verehrer 2 Actress Schauspielerin 3 Boss Geschftsleiter, Oberhaupt, Leiter 4 Team Mannschaft, Arbeitsgruppe 5 Boom Aufschwung, Hochkonjunktur 6 Look Aussehen, Gestalt(ung) 7 Deal Geschft, Abschluss, Abmachung 8 Trend Richtung, Richtlinie, Tendenz, Verlauf 9 Handy Mobiltelefon 10 Show Auffrung, Ausstellung, Vorstellung 11 Interview Vorstellungsgesprch, Вісник ЛНУ імені Тараса Шевченка № 14 (249), 2012_______________
The numbers in the last row indicate the overall number of English words and their frequency of all articles included in the study. The frequency of English words across all Focus rubrics is 2.16. Among all the rubrics in Focus, Modernes Leben (Modern Life) tops the English occurrence table. For one this is due to its articles about people, celebrities' life, pop culture that traditionally contain a lot of English words. The same can be said about the Kultur (Culture) section. Along with the great influence of music and movies in Germany comes the influence of music and movie terminology on German.
With many English expressions in this field having German equivalents, it can be argued that the borrowing of English is less of a necessity, but rather a stylistic choice, e.g.: "Desaster"-Filme, Action Thriller, Bestseller, Blockbuster, Events, Casting, Covergirl, etc. In this section Galinsky’s stylistic device of providing American colour might be playing a role. For example, when reporting about the lifestyle of a Hollywood star, it seems reasonable to assume that there will be English words in the article to create a Вісник ЛНУ імені Тараса Шевченка № 14 (249), 2012_______________
certain closeness to the celebrity: e.g. All-American Boy, Hit, Image, Look, Pop-Prinzessin, Fans, Party-Crack, Story, Smokings, Shows. German readers tend to associate pop stars with Hollywood, Hollywood with the United States, and the United States with English. Using English will therefore indirectly give them a feeling of being closer to the pop star.
Periskop rubric with its 2.66 occurrence has also a relatively high frequency of English words. Owing to its name, the main function of this rubric is to be focused on and reflect the most recent and significant events in
all life spheres and to present this information to the reader in a compact, easyto-grasp form. So the function of English words in it is for stylistic reasons:
brevity of expression, communicative precision, producing vividness: e.g.
Burn-out-/Symptome, Camp, City (Downtown), Details, Slogan, Trend, smart.
The frequencies of English words in the Wirtschaft (Economy), Sport/Auto and Forschung und Technik (Science and Technology) sections are not very close to one another with 1.34%, 2.8 and 2.26 respectively, but they are often field-specific borrowings. The number of English words in the Wirtshcaft section often relates to international finance, the state of the economy, or certain aspects of business, e.g. Brsencrash, Exportboom, Investment, Discounter, Start-up Unternehmen, boomende Geschfte.
Furthermore, articles on the economy, as well as science, often discuss new markets and products, new inventions, contain names for new products, advertisement slogans, which are often in English, e.g. Software, Apple-Fan, 3-D-Trend, Blueray-Player, "Cash is King", Chip, Memory-Stick, Convenience Food, Technologies, Fast Food, Top-Produkt etc.
Many sports names originate either from Great Britain or the United States. For this reason English names such as Soccer, Volleyball, Basketball, Boxing, Tennis, Snowboarding, Surfen, Rally, Racing were adopted by German many years ago. They have been used until now mostly without any German equivalents. Nevertheless, many of the borrowings in the Sport section do have German counterparts, but the English words tend to be more popular: Fussballstars, Fans (Anhnger), Kicker (Fussballspieler), Coach, Trainer, Team (Mannschaft), Play (Spiel), Ranking, Tennistrend, Cup (Pokal), Dopingprobe (Dopinganalyse), etc. The words that describe Health/Wellness sphere are represented not so much in the Sport rubric, but rather in Modernes Leben or Forschung & Technik, also tend to be English words: Fitnessclub, Training, Wellness, fit, Top-Form, Crash-Dit, Low-Fat Produkte, Health Trends, etc.
Why do we see so many English borrowings in the sphere of leisure?
There seems to be a general view that diets or healthy lifestyle tips come mostly from the United States, they are more reliable and "stylish". Assuming that this is indeed the case, Galinsky’s stylistic function of American coloring might be one of the reasons for English borrowings. So we deal here with the extralinguistic reason for borrowing which we called prestige of the sourcelanguage. When talking about a certain diet, for example, the usage of English borrowings might suggest to the reader that the diet comes from the United Вісник ЛНУ імені Тараса Шевченка № 14 (249), 2012_______________
States, and it has been tested and approved by a celebrity. Another reason for the borrowing of English terms in the health-wellness section comes from the fact that a number of articles in this section are related to the field of medicine, a sector which is well-advanced in the United States. Within the field of medicine, we see field-specific borrowings, such as Body-Mass-Index, Ernhrungs-IQ, Do-it-yourself-Dit etc.
Deutschland and Ausland rubrics have a lot of articles on politics and lie at the bottom of the English frequency table. There are a few possible explanations for this finding. First, these rubrics are very news-oriented and informational and are generally not read for entertainment. Additionally, the articles on politics often deal with domestic issues, e.g. Germany’s education system, insurance system, economy statistics. It is also true for Wirtschaftrubric, which also has a low number of Anglicisms. When discussing internal affairs, it is not necessary to include English words. Moreover, some readers might not want to see English words in those sections as they may associate an influence of English words with an influence of the United States (or Great Britain) on politics in Germany. As for Ausland rubric, there are also few reasons for using English words in it. Still, there are some words (Checkpoints, Consulting Firm, Camp-Kids, Clinch (Konflikt), Tipp) that tend to brevity, lead to stylistic synonymy, are precise and recognisable.
The results from this investigation suggest that conveying international colouring, suggesting English reality, absence of some words or derivatives in the DL, cultural dominance of the RL, creating euphemisms effect, producing vividness, appealing to prestige and international recognition of products may be stylistic motivators for the borrowing of English.
The language of the German advertising had absorbed a great number of Anglicisms. English words are particularly evident in the adverts of clothes, electronic products, sport equipment. And indeed, one advertising catalogue abounds in such words as: Desertboots, Loungewear, Strohcowboyhut, Trainingsjacke, Sneakersocken, Runningshose, Outdooraktivitten, Longsleeve mit Print, Softshelljacke, Mountainbike, Drift Scooter, Seamless Boxershorts, Performance-Materialien, Rugby-Shirt, Smartphone, Cardreader, Businesskeyboar (examples are taken from our data detection of advertising sources).In all these cases, the use of English can be said to reflect "Englishisation", i.e. the global dominance of English in science, technology, and pop culture . Using English in advertisement can serve as a demonstration of this statement.
The main objective of advertising is to catch the attention of prospective customers to sell their products. Anglicisms do this easily as they tend to be short and compact. According to Rebuck , English words are used in place of their equivalents in the media for better image, since English words are seen as prestigious. Rebuck also found that English loan words in print advertisements may be used in place of local equivalents because of their cosmopolitan appeal, in order to give the product an aura of “scientific
Вісник ЛНУ імені Тараса Шевченка № 14 (249), 2012_______________
reliability and may lead them to perceive the product as being somehow superior and advanced.
In our advertising materials we counted 376 English entries and 29 outdoor advertisements partly or completely in English. We recorded all the words separately from each source but found it pointless to further organise them into any spheres or rubrics. The main reason for that was that the collected material is rather heterogeneous. Some brochures contain advertisements only of one type of products, while others contain advertising of many different kinds of goods: food, clothes, furniture, household appliances, cosmetics, gardening utensils, etc. According to our observations, advertising of electronic products and clothes has the highest number of English words.
The reasons for such frequency in the first group are not difficult to understand. Many of the words, especially computer- related borrowings (Flatscreen LCD-TV, Mediaplayer, Surround-Soundsystem, Tuner, Audio-CD, GPS-Chip, Bluelight-Sensor, Webcam, Cardreader, Farbdisplay) are domainspecific, i.e. there is no alternative to using the English words since there are no German equivalents, and the usage of English borrowings is a necessity.
With the huge number of high-tech products and software applications coming from the United States and other countries, the German language adopts the vast majority of new terms, e.g. Software, E-mail, online, Stand-by, Bluetooth, Memory-Stick.