«ЛУГАНСЬКОГО НАЦІОНАЛЬНОГО УНІВЕРСИТЕТУ ІМЕНІ ТАРАСА ШЕВЧЕНКА № 14 (249) ЛИПЕНЬ ВІСНИК ЛУГАНСЬКОГО НАЦІОНАЛЬНОГО УНІВЕРСИТЕТУ ІМЕНІ ТАРАСА ШЕВЧЕНКА ФІЛОЛОГІЧНІ НАУКИ № 14 (249) липень ...»
Languages respond to the developing needs of communication, following changes in the world and ways of living. Though it is often claimed that Anglicisms are increasing more and more in the European languages, it is not so easy to verify this statement. Some studies of Anglicisms trace English borrowings and their numbers in dictionaries or newspapers over several decades, collecting, counting and categorizing the words. With respect to Anglicisms in German, studies by Carstensen, Busse, Yang, Onysko [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6] show that Anglicisms are indeed on the rise, though not to a large extent, compared to the overall number of everyday words. The actual relevance of this work is determined by the increase in the importance of English internationally and its role in the process of globalization.
The prior goal of this article is to investigate linguistic borrowing, more precisely, lexical borrowing from a sociolinguistic point of view. Other objectives related with this investigation are to examine the main reasons for using English words and regularities of their functioning in German; to find an answer to the question concerning the role of English as a lingua franca in modern lexical borrowing by example of the German language.
The term “borrowing” is usually applied to words and their meaning.
"Borrowing" denotes the process as well as the object. As a process it typically refers to the importation of a word or its meaning from one language into another. As an object, it denotes the form and/or the meaning of the item that Вісник ЛНУ імені Тараса Шевченка № 14 (249), 2012_______________
originally was not part of the vocabulary of the recipient language (RL) but was adopted from some other language and made part of the borrowing language's vocabulary [7, p. 6]. Haugen [8, p. 81] defines the borrowing process as "the attempted reproduction in one language of patterns previously found in another". Onysko defines borrowing as follows: "Borrowing is defined as the transfer of units of form and meaning from SL (source language) to RL" [6, p. 79].
Borrowing is not purely linguistic phenomenon but to the same degree cultural. In the life of languages it is a natural process that one word or expression is taken from one language into the other. Language contact and cultural contact are regarded to be the main reasons of linguistic borrowing.
Thus, with regard to its cultural aspect borrowing can be defined as a process whereby a word which is used in one language begins to be used in another language. In this article under the term "borrowing” we understand a word or word combination (phrase, sentence), transferred from one language into another and subjected to a degree of assimilation to the new language domain.
Anglicism is a particular case of borrowing – a loan word from the English language. The term "Anglicism" was first used in the 17th century and is defined in the Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English  as “an English word or expression that is used in another language”. Today the term is commonly associated with the increasing influx of English borrowings from World War II onwards, related to the international role of mainly the United States, and to English as a lingua franca.
So, the subject of this study is the process of borrowing and functioning of Anglo-Americanisms in the modern German language. The object of this research is the printed German magazine Focus (twelve issues), and a number of advertising materials: local newspapers, non-periodical printed editions such as advertising booklets, touristic brochures, catalogues issued in March-April 2011, and outdoor advertising.
Surely, Anglicisms in the press and advertisement language have been extensively studied for several decades. Nevertheless, there are always reasons that make these discourses interesting for research, for this reason they were taken as primary sources for this analysis. First of all, it is hard to imagine any person who never deals with printed media. The press has a strong effect on the reader and is therefore one of the strongest forces in the development of modern German. Newspapers constitute a major means of conveying language innovations and share the function of conveying new language forms with radio and television that recently have gained in their influence on the audience. Compared to the language in literary work that is often targeted toward a very specific audience and might tend to use specialized language, newspaper and press language are less likely to use terms that are not understood by the majority of readers [3, p. 239].
Advertising is the second realm after mass media (besides Internet, which is a highly specialized area), that uses English particularly actively. The language of advertising has become a powerful instrument of influence on Вісник ЛНУ імені Тараса Шевченка № 14 (249), 2012_______________
consumers; it is closely related to language changes and reflects the main tendencies in its development. The efficiency of any advertising campaign is directly related to the language it uses and can ascribe its successes and failures to its choice. Therefore, browsing German magazines, we cannot help observing that Anglicisms are generously used by advertising materials. The main objective of advertising is to catch the attention of prospective customers to sell the products. Anglicisms do this easily as they tend to be expressive, short and compact.
Our research method consisted in counting the number of English borrowings in all the articles, titles and captions in the source material. All instances of Anglicisms were taken into analysis after checking their etymology, grammatical and semantic features in dictionaries. The analysis was also backed by inquiry, consultation and discussion with native speakers.
These were particularly useful in assessing the values attached to specific uses of English. Only English words pertaining to the following categories were counted: lexical borrowings (where loan words are those that have become adopted with respect to orthography and morphology), semantic borrowings (a type of lexical borrowing in which only the meaning of a word but not its form is transferred from the DL into the RL), lexico-semantic borrowings (or hybrid loans, that consist of elements of both DL and RL) and pseudo-loans (where a lexeme of the DL is used to produce a new word in the RL).
Several linguists have done research to explore the functional range and domains of the phenomenon of English in the German language (Galinsky 1967, Pfitzner, 1978, Yang 1990, Zimmer 1997, Corr 2003, Onysko 2007, Hilgendorf 2007, etc.). Galinsky’s work is groundbreaking in the research of stylistic aspects for the usage of Anglicisms in German and forms the basis for further research. In his still-up-to-date categorization, Galinsky came up with seven stylistic functions of Anglicisms, documented with numerous examples from various domains including the press, politics, literature, etc. The categorial functions were as follows: (1) conveying "American color"; (2) precision; (3) intentional disguise; (4) brevity; (5) vividness; (6) tone; and (7) variation of expression .
Analysing the linguistic impact of English on the German language, Hilgendorf [10, p. 4] refers not only to the political, industrial, technical and scientific dominance of the United States, but also to the spread of American culture, English language newspapers, dubbed films, pop songs and the expansion of the medium of television in Germany.
Following some scientists we made a distinction between extralinguistic and intralinguistic reasons for borrowing. To extralinguistic
reasons for borrowing can be referred the following:
1) cultural interference or direct and indirect contacts between countries with different languages;
2) growing interest for learning a certain language;
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3) prestige of the source language (SL) (which sometimes leads to borrowing from it by many donor languages (DL) and appearance of internationalisms) especially in certain spheres;
4) historically conditioned interest of certain social groups for a foreign culture;
5) language culture situation of the language recipient groups.
Various events in the latter half of the 20th century brought English and German into contact with one another. These are political, industrial, technical, military, scientific predominance of the United States, the spread of American culture and lifestyle, the fall of the Berlin Wall (Mauerfall), the formation of the European Union and the advances in technology, such as the invention of the computer. Today computers are used for a multitude of purposes and in practically every area of life. More recently, the World Wide Web, the Internet, e-mails and the tendency to globalization have also led to increased contact between languages of the world including English and German. Hilgendorf [11, p. 141] also refers to the general tendency that German scholars within the scientific community and German employees working in German business subsidiaries in foreign countries use English with foreigners who can speak German. It may be partly due to prestige, partly to the English specialist terminology used by them, and also to the fact that if both partners use a foreign language, i.e. English instead of their mother tongue, they tend to speak slower, clearer and on equal terms.
To the intralinguistic reasons for borrowing we ascribe the following
1. absence of equivalent words for a new thing or phenomenon in the DL (Computer, Internet);
2. conveying an English/American atmosphere or setting (reference to locations and idiomatic expressions for which German equivalents either do not exist or would not suffice in conveying an authentic American setting, e.g. Pub, First Lady, High-school, Campus, College, Cowboy;
3. tendency to brevity of expression (e.g. one loan word instead of a descriptive phrase (Babymord instead of Mord der Babys);
4. need for communicative precision of lexical units, avoidance of polysemy or homonymy in the RL (Casting, Leasing);
5. creating or increasing variation of expression, leading to appearance of foreign stylistic synonyms (Beratung – Consulting);
6. absence of word derivatives in the donor language and their presence in the RL (SMS-sen, chat-ten);
7. creating intentional disguise/euphemism, especially politics, sex and drug-related expressions (e.g. Bestechung (Korruption), Bordell (Appartmenthaus), Eros-Center, Prostituierte (Hostess, Callgirl), Drogenabhaengiger (Fixer);
8. producing vividness, often by way of metaphor, conveying comic or playful touch (Sparminator, Spar-Rambo).
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In many cases, the most compelling motivation to borrow words is “need” to fill a void in the borrowing language to describe new concepts and elements. We ascribed this function to intralinguistic reasons, although in fact it is rather special. Among all the above mentioned motivations for borrowing, necessity is the only one which is not stylistic. There are new innovations in every era constantly taking place. No linguistic system possesses all the necessary terms to explain these innovations. It is much easier to borrow terms rather than invent new ones. For instance, many terms in the field of information technology, computer science, medicine and sports in the world today are borrowed from the English language by a large number of languages.