«ФУНДАМЕНТАЛЬНІ ТА ПРИКЛАДНІ ПРОБЛЕМИ ПІДПРИЄМНИЦЬКОЇ ДІЯЛЬНОСТІ В АГРАРНОМУ СЕКТОРІ Матеріали Міжнародної науково-практичної конференції (24 квітня 2015 р.) Харків - 2015 УДК ...»
11. 3. Об акционерных обществах: Федеральный закон Российской Федерации от 26 декабря 1995 г. № 208-ФЗ: принят Гос. Думой 24 ноября 1995 г. // Собрание законодательства Российской Федерации. - № 1. – 1996. 4. Сигидов Ю. И. Оценка дебиторской задолженности в российском и международном учете / Ю. И. Сигидов, М. А. Коровина // Международный бухгалтерский учет.
2012. № 41. С. 2-9.
QUESTIONS OF IMPROVEMENT OF INVESTMENT ACTIVITY OF
BANKS IN STRENGTHENING OF ECONOMIC STABILITY OF
ECONOMIC SUBJECTSIn the conditions of market economy commercial banks are key financial institutions financing flowing and investment activity of economic subjects, and also redistributing financial resources in economy. Besides requirements of economic subjects for various financial services are provided with commercial banks.
Spent measures on additional stimulation and strengthening of activity of commercial banks, expansion of investment possibilities, strengthening of resource bases, and also on improvement of quality of bank-financial services offered the population yield positive results.
As the basic direction of commercial banks this allocation of credits, it demands in many respects correct and reasonable carrying out of a policy of crediting. From this point of view the deep analysis of practice of crediting of banks is especially important.
There is which number of factors it is necessary to consider at the analysis of
practice of crediting of commercial banks. It is:
1) Allocation of an appreciable part of credits of large commercial banks of Republic from the centralized resources.
2) The considerable part of credits allocated with Republic banks is the provided credits
3) Existence of obligatory reserve requirements for restriction of possibilities of crediting of banks of republic. Obligatory reserve requirements can will limit to 20 percent of possibility of crediting of banks.
4) The system of an estimation of risk of the credit is not developed
5) Low level of credit portfolio diversification of banks depending on structure of clients.
Ignoring of these problems keeps high level of credit risk.
It is known, in the countries with the developed market economy the big attention is given to the credit policy, a credit portfolio and its quality, use degree.
Because correct formation of a credit portfolio testifies to efficiency of activity of Секція 3. Фінансово-кредитне підґрунтя та інвестиційне забезпечення сталого розвитку суб’єктів господарювання України bank. Errors admitted in carrying out of credit operations can lead to decrease in profit of banks and some cases even to bankruptcy.
In the conditions of economic instability banks work with the raised risk. For example, occurrence of problem credits, deterioration of a financial position of the client, solvency loss, absence of reliable security under credits, a negligence of bank employees in timely detection of risk and its elimination and many other things factors can lead to bankruptcy.
Therefore the primary goals at management of credit portfolios of commercial banks should consist of following points which can have big value in management of
risk arising in bank activity:
Detection and estimation of factors influencing degree of risk of the credit Classification of loans by risk groups Optimization of a credit portfolio on risk of the credit, structure of clients and loans The analysis of credit loyalty and financial position of the client with a view of forecasting of risk of the credit Timely detection of problem loans Estimation of a created reserve and its timely maintenance Diversification of credit investments, maintenance of its liquidity and profitableness Working out of a policy of a credit portfolio of bank and its carrying out on the basis of the qualitative analysis of a credit portfolio In the conditions of developing market relations before banks there will be serious complexities in management of credits. Slump in production, financial restrictions, infringement of the schedule of manufacture, frequent occurrence of instability in business sphere worsen a financial position of the borrower. From this point of view in bank system of Uzbekistan exists some lacks of management of
credits. In particular:
Absence of restriction under the relation of concentration of a credit portfolio Instability centralized and the decentralized order of credit managing directors The bad analysis of sphere of crediting The superficial financial analysis of the borrower Absence of the control over promissory notes Inconsistency of the control of process of crediting These lacks will lead to easing of a credit portfolio or to an excessive congestion of credits given out in one sector or to one subject. It proves importance of strengthening of a method of selective crediting.
The analysis of the mechanism of crediting in Uzbekistan and its comparison to credit relations in the countries with the developed market economy gives
possibility of formation of following directions, in particular a selective direction:
Секція 3. Фінансово-кредитне підґрунтя та інвестиційне забезпечення сталого розвитку суб’єктів господарювання України Differentiation of credit relations of banks with the enterprises, thus will pay special attention on the basic economic indicators of their activity.
Democratization of conditions of crediting, all-round expansion of powers and the rights of subordinate banking establishments directly serving credit calculations of various structures Support by proceeds of credit at introduction of new progressive forms of housekeeping Qualitative formation of financial sources of capital investments, the effective expense, strengthening of influence of the credit for profitableness of investments.
Establishment of usages of cooperation of banks with the enterprises and improvement of contractual relations between them.
Introduction of new kinds and crediting methods (leasing, the bill and others) In the developed countries of the rate under loans for agriculture above under the relation of loans for the trading and industrial enterprises because they depend on risk and volume.
Instead of establishing the highest interest rate follows will give to Banks and economy possibility will define the interest rate proceeding from a supply and demand in the capital market.
But for this purpose at present in Uzbekistan there are no conditions. In the first, the capital market is not generated yet, a financial position of some enterprises is unstable. In the second shortage of material resources is felt. In the third, in small and private enterprises, in other forms of economy there are no qualified bank employees, bookkeepers and financiers.
World experience shows, in the conditions of the market if one enterprises prosper that others become bankrupts. It in particular is observed in Uzbekistan on an example of commercial banks. A principal cause, this non-observance of rules of crediting (in particular a selective method). As the conclusion it is possible to tell, in crediting practice very serious and their decision will result problems of commercial banks of Republic finally in financial stability of banks.
Commercial banks which are the important component of modern system of bank crediting this multipurpose establishment of the financial market. At present in the international bank practice it is offered to clients more than 200 kinds of bank services. In due course will change forms of bank operation, the competition, management and regulation by system, will extend a field of activity of banks and ability of adaptibility to conditions and market requirements will increase.
In the developed countries between banks and various financial institutions borders of fields of activity disappear. It strengthens a competition in bank sphere.
Together with it the complex of services of credit institutes and methods of their sale varies. Only introduction of new services and improvement of quality of service gives possibility will keep and will increase the client base.
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In strategy of strengthening of relations with the client leading banks of the developed countries pay the big attention to improvement of quality of services. It Секція 3. Фінансово-кредитне підґрунтя та інвестиційне забезпечення сталого розвитку суб’єктів господарювання України certainly will raise trust of clients to bank. But now granting of one only is not enough service. The client should feel and other advantages in work with this bank.
Politeness, efficiency, documentation conducting in several languages, simplicity of filling of forms, lucidity of the prices and expenses, convenience of using service and an individual approach to each client are the basic advantages. Deviation from one of the principles set forth above clears up feeling of a dissatisfaction in the client.
Therefore banks should observe these principles, and the marketing service should will study requirements of the client.
Good service testifies to growth of quality of bank services, it strengthens trust to bank. With a view of demonstration of quality of bank services some banks introduce service guarantees. For example « Community National bank» in California pays 5 dollars to the client staid in turn more than 5 minutes. Service guarantees strengthen trust to bank, motivates employees to qualitative work and gives possibility will reveal lacks or difficulties at introduction of new types of service.
It is possible to tell with confidence, such support of bank system and the enterprises of real sector of the country serves as the important factor in strengthening of stability of our economy, so to growth of well-being of the people. Banks in turn will be will continue and will expand measures spent for these purposes.
РІВЕНЬ СОБІВАРТОСТІ ПРОДУКЦІЇ РОСЛИННИЦТВА В
СІЛЬСЬКОГОСПОДАРСЬКИХ ПІДПРИЄМСТВАХ НА СУЧАСНОМУЕТАПІ Серед сукупності факторів найбільш вагомий вплив на прибутковість сільськогосподарського виробництва справляє собівартість продукції. Рівень собівартості певного сільськогосподарського підприємства чи регіону безпосередньо визначає прибутковість тих чи інших видів продукції рослинництва і формує їх конкурентоспроможність на внутрішньому і зовнішньому ринку. Постійні зміни в економічному середовищі, новітні ринкові перетворення справляють неабиякий вплив на рівень собівартості сільськогосподарської продукції, зокрема в галузі рослинництва, що визначає актуальність дослідження сучасного рівня собівартості продукції рослинництва в сільськогосподарських підприємствах.
Вагомий внесок у наукове розкриття проблем собівартості і ефективності сільськогосподарського виробництва зробили такі вчені, як В.Г. Андрійчук , П.Т. Саблук , Т В.М. Петров, А.В. Токар  та ін. В їх працях висвітлюються * Науковий керівник – д.е.н., професор, завідувач кафедри фінансів Олійник О.В.