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2. SUPERCRITICAL FLUID EXTRACTION

WALNUT LEAVES AND GREEN HUSKS

Cristina Popovici Faculty of Technology and Management in Food Industry, Technical University of Moldova Liliana Gitin, Petru Alexe Faculty of Food Science and Engineering, University Dunarea de Jos Galati, Romania Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFE) offers many advantages to food processors as an of alternative operation to conventional extraction processes. Use of supercritical carbon dioxide (SCO2), the most common supercritical fluid (SF), to replace organic solvents in extraction processes is attractive. SCO2 is an environmentally benign and nontoxic solvent; it is easily handled and easy to obtain; it can be recycled and reused;

it is nonflammable; and it does not leave solvent residue that can contaminate the food substrate or extract [4].

Walnut leaves and green husk are an agro-forest waste generated in the walnut (Juglans regia L.) harvest that could be valued as a source of natural compounds with antioxidant and antimicrobial properties [1, 2]. Different works demonstrated the potential antioxidant of walnut products, especially fruits, leaves and liquers which produced by green fruits. Supercritical fluid extraction technique was applied to extract biologically active compounds from walnut leaves and green husks [3]. Equipment used for supercritical fluid extraction (Figure 1) of walnut dried green husks was designed and supplied by Natex Prozesstechnologie GembH (Ternitz, Austria).

Figure 1. A schematic design of the supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) unit

Knowledge of the behavior of the factors influencing the process conditions is necessary to enhance the optimization extraction efficient for any bioactive compound.

Extraction parameters used in this work are shown in table 1.

Walnut leaves and green husk extracts obtained by SFE showed the polar properties, chloroform as a solvent was used to analyze the antioxidant potential and

   

The total phenolic content (by Folin-Ciocalteu assay) was 477,59 mg/g and 659,45 mg/g in walnut green husks and leaves extracts respectively. The extraction yield was 5,29 % for walnut green husks and 5,34 % for walnut leaves. To increase the extraction efficiency, and consequently, reduce the extraction time of biologically active compounds from walnut products it can be proposed to increase the polarity of carbon dioxide solvent by addition of small amount of liquid co-solvent (modifier).

Ethanol is more preferable as a co-solvent in SFE because of it lower toxicity.

Walnut leaves and green husk extracts obtained by SFE possess considerable amounts of carotenoids, phenolic compounds and a significant radical scavenging activity towards stable DPPH free radical. Using supercritical carbon dioxide extraction method, the EC50 for walnut leaves extract was 3,74 mg/ml and 4,69 mg/ml for walnut green husks extracts.

REFERENCES

1. Fernndez-Agull A., Pereira E., et al. Influence of solvent on the antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of walnut (Juglans regia L.) green husk extracts, Industrial Crops and Products 42, 2013, p. 126 132.

2. Pereira J.A., Oliveira I., Sousa A., Valento P., et al. Walnut (Juglans regia L.) leaves: Phenolic compounds, antibacterial activity and antioxidant potential of different cultivars. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 45, 2007, p. 2287 2295.

3. Popovici C., Gtin L., Alexe P. Characterization of walnut (Juglans regia L.) green husk extract obtained by supercritical carbon dioxide fluid extraction. Journal of Food and Packaging Science Technique and Technologies (1), 2012, p. 5 9.



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