«АГРОБІОЛОГІЯ Збірник наукових праць Виходить 2 рази на рік Заснований 03.2009 року № 1 (117) 2015 Біла Церква Агробіологія, № 1’2015. УДК 06:631/635 Засновник, редакція, видавець і ...»
Thus, the total number of bacteria in 10 days was within 112 % under using Biolan (20 ml/ha) and under using Ryzobofit (100 g/t) it was 114 %. Applying Dyesilyet helped to increase the total number of bacteria up to 120 %. The complex usage of Dyesilyet and Biolan increased the total number of bacteria significantly that was 130 and 136 % according to the application norms. Using Dyesilyet with Ryzobofit had the highest rates in the experiment. Here we observed the highest number of bacteria that was 138 and 144 % according to the norms of the preparations use.
We also investigated the effects of preparations on the activity of some physiological groups of microorganisms. We found that the most sensitive to the herbicide were nitrate bacteria of I and II phase of nitrification. Application of Biolan and Ryzobofit positively impact the development of physiological groups of microorganisms. Thus, in 10 days of herbicide application they reduced in number significantly as compared to the control, especially at herbicide effect representing 91-95 % of nitrate
Агробіологія, № 1’2015.
bacteria of I phase and 92-94 % of nitrate bacteria of II phase. When using Dyesilyet with Biolan the number of nitrate bacteria of I phase increased slightly, representing 98-101 % of the control and the number of nitrate bacteria of II phase was 92-94 % of the control. The complex use of Dyesilyet with Ryzobofit boosted the number of nitrate bacteria of I phase up to 101-103 % and reduced nitrate bacteria of II phase to 86-88 %.
Ammonifiers number in the experiment depended on the norm of the herbicide and its combination with Biolan and Ryzobofit. Under applying Dyesilyet the number of ammonifiers was within 108-111 %. At combined using with Biolan the number grew to 119 and 115 % respectively. The complex application of Dyesilyet with Ryzobofit provided ammonifiers growth within 120-122 %.
Cellulose destructive bacteria were insensitive to Dyesilyet playing an important role in soil fertility. The number of cellulose destructive bacteria was slightly higher than in the control and almost did not depend on Dyesilyet norm. However, most of them are observed using Dyesilyet normally 0.6 l/ha together with Ryzobofit 100 g/t, representing 121 % of the control.
The studied preparations Dyesilet, Ryzobofit and Biolan affect positively the symbiotic activity of soybean crops and development of bacteria, micromycetes and other physiological groups of microorganisms of rhizosphere on both the 10 th and the 25th days. Application of Dyesilyet inhibits slightly the development of individual physiological groups of microorganisms, compared with options where Ryzobofit and Biolan were used. But their number is fully restored after 25 th day.
Key words: soybean, herbicide, Dyesilyet, regulator growth, Biolan plant, Ryzobofit, soil microflora, symbiosis, tubercle bacteria.
Effect of microbial preparations on the potato crop structure in the Carpathian region V. Boroday, T. Danilkova, N. Voytseshina, V. Koltunov The tough sanitary requirements are applied towards the growing of potatoes for food purposes. The intensive farming systems based on chemicals have led to a significant land degradation, violation of the ecological balance of agro-ecosystems, deterioration in the quality of agricultural products, radionuclide and heavy metals – carcinogens, pesticides, various chemical minerals contamination. The accumulation of xenobiotics by plants from the soil determines the extent of the initial inclusion in the food chain in the system: soil – agricultural crops – people. In recent years, the development of methods of environmental protection has studied as an alternative way to chemical methods of protection, affecting the ecology of the agrophytocenoses.
Multi-method study of the efficacy of the composition of biological preparations based on bacteria strains Pseudomonas fluorescence AR-33, Agrobacterium radiobacter 204, Enterobacter nimipressuralis 32-3 were not carried out or were studied fragmentarily in growing potatoes, as well as their effectiveness in the application at all stages (treatment of tubers in spring, during the growing season, before the storage) in Ukraine.
The studying of conditions under which the cultivation and processing techniques have a minimum number of nonstandard forms, diseased tubers was the purpose of investigation. The aim of research was to study the influence of abiotic factors, timing of planting, processing of chemical and biological agents on yield and its structure in Lviv region. The study was conducted during 2009-2012. Planryz was studied as biological preparation – Pseudomonas fluorescence strain AR-33, 2.0 l/ha, Diazophit (active ingredient – bacteria Agrobacterium radiobacter, 0,2 l/ha), Phosphoroenteryn – biological preparation based on phosphorus bacteria Enterobacter nimipressuralis 32-3, 0.2 l/ha. Phitotsyd was used as biological control (based on Bacillus subtilis, 1 l/ha). The tubers were treated by preparations before planting, before the storage and plants during the budding. Experiments conducted on the 1st term (27-30 April), 2nd (12-15 May). The study was conducted in 4 districts of Lviv region, which differ in their soil and climatic conditions: West Woodlands, Radekhiv area; West Zone of steppe, Zhovkivsky area;
Carpathian Foothills area, Strysky area; Carpathian, Skole district. The crop was harvested the 3rd week of August – 2nd week of September. Repeated experiments – 3-5 fold. The third term of planting (late May) was unsuitable from the economic side (low yield), but because it has been excluded from the scheme of studies. The study was carried out by conventional methods.
Statistical analysis of the data was performed by a computer program Excel.
It was found that the productivity and marketability, the standard fraction of potatoes tuber increased at treatment of biological preparations (Phitotsid, Planriz, Diazophit and Phosphoenterin) on the average in varieties and planting terms in Lviv region. In this case, the composition of the non-standard fraction changed due to a significant decrease of small, mechanically damaged and diseased tubers. The yield of potatoes exceeded the control in 1.3-1.7, and the number of infected tubers decreased in 2,1-5,4 times. The concentrations of Planriz 2.0-2.5 l/ha, and Planriz + Diazophit +PMB – 2.5+0.2+0.2 l/ha were the best among the variants. The 1st planting time in the third decade of April was the best due to the smaller number of tubers damaged by disease.
The using of Planryz, Diazophit and Phosphoenteryn softened the action of unstable weather conditions, especially the excess moisture, contributed to a more yield, high marketability of potatoes and non-standard potatoes in comparison with control.
Using a mixture of Planryz, Phosphoenteryn (PMB) and Diazophit as environmentally safe microbiological preparations based on microorganisms will improve phosphorus and nitrogen nutrition potatoes contribute to accelerate the growth process, strengthen the immune system of plants due to the production of biologically active substances that contribute to biocontrol of pathogens followed increase productivity and commercial quality potatoes. These properties make it possible to use these microbiological agents in Bioorganic agriculture. In the future study of plant resistance, biological products processed, with lesions pathogens that are important for the development of highly efficient environmentally friendly measures to protect plants from disease. The study of plant resistance, processed by biological preparation, at affect of pathogens is in the works in the future that are important for the development of highly efficient environmentally measures to protect plants from disease.
Купить саженцы и черенки винограда
Key words: Solanum tuberosum L., microbiological preparations, marketability, diseased, stability The influence of polyfunctional microbial preparations on the structural and dynamic features of microbiocenosis and legumes productivity S. Didovich, E. Turina, R. Kulinich, S. Abdyrashitov, T. Gorgylko, A. Didovich At the present time the main priorities in agricultural production in Ukraine and Russia are ecology of its branches, natural resources conservation, energy saving and economic efficiency. Therefore biotechnology of soybean, pea and other legumes
Агробіологія, № 1’2015.
breeding had been designed. It is based on the strategy of joint using of biological preparations by applying heterotrophic microorganisms of different action (symbiotic nitrogen fixing, phosphate mobilizing and growth-promoting activity, antagonistic activity to phytopathogens, entomocide activity to phytophagans), allowing to raise plant productivity, to protect the plants from pathogen infection, to control the quantity of phytophagans, and to get qualitative and ecologically safe products of plantgrower.
However, alternative ways of creation of the efficient plant–microbial systems and all-round studies of the mechanism of micro- and macro-partners interaction, conditions of their efficient functioning have a requirement in a further search. Special emphasis should be laid on the influence of phototrophic microorganisms – chyanobacteria on functional efficiency of the plant-microbial system. Chyanobacteria form a constant active part of soil biota, they are bound by a complex interaction with all its components, and take part in different processes in soil. Few studies have been examined the influence of biotechnology on soil-forming processes in agrocoenosis.
This work has investigated the influence of pre-sowing treatment seeds by microbial drugs on the basis of effective heterotrophic (nitrogen-fixing nodulating bacteria, growth-promoting and phosphate mobilizing microorganisms, and microorganisms-antagonists of the phytopathogenes) and phototrophic microorganisms (cyanobacteria) on changes of microbial cenoses and its functional structure (the number of the main ecological trophic groups of microorganisms, the ratio of mineralization and oliogotrophic indices) and seed productivity of legumes in the period of their growing in the steppe zone of Crimea.
It was found out that the phases of development of plants, legumes species and introduction of poly-functional preparations influenced the formation and functioning of microbial cenoses in the legumes rhizosphere.
The possibility of biological activity intensification in the rhizosphere of soil at different stages of legumes ontogenesis applying the heterotrophic and phototrophic microorganisms was proved. Usage of poly-functional preparations affected indices of mineralization, oliogotrophic and microbiological transformation of organic substance in the rhizosphere, but intensity of these processes was different depending on preparations.