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, : (Carbon, climate, and land-use in Ukraine: Forest sector) Book May 2014 READS 5 authors, including: Anatoly Shvidenko ...

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Summary Ukraine is one of the biggest countries of Europe (area

603.5 thousand km2, population 45.8 million persons) with a temperate moderately continental climate. The country includes 5 natural zones plain Polissja (17.9% of the total land area), Forest Steppe (32.3%), and Steppe (37.1%) and two mountain systems Carpathians (9.4%) and Crimea (4.3%). The lands of Forest Fund account for 10.8 million ha of which 9.6 million ha covered by forest vegetation. Distribution of forests around the country is very irregular while Carpathians have 40.2 of forest cover percentage, Polissja and Forest Steppe 26.1 and 13.0% respectively, the Steppe is practically forestless (3.5%). Coniferous species dominate on 42% of the forest area (including 32% dominated by pine and 10% by spruce and fir), hard wood deciduous 43% (of which oak and beech comprise 32%), and soft wood deciduous 15%. Young (32% of forested area) and middle-aged (44%) forests prevail, other age groups are less represented immature stands cover 13% and mature 11%. Average age of forests across the country is 62 years. About 50% of forests are planted. On average, forests are of a high productivity: average growing stock is 220 m3 ha1 and mean annual increment is about 4 m3 ha1 year1.

During the last 50 years (19612011), the area of forests increased by almost one third, but major efforts with this respect have been realized in 1960s1990s. The current total harvest of commercial wood is at the level 1517 million m3 per year including ~40% harvested by final felling.

Major natural disturbances in forest include wildfire and impacts of biotic agents (outbreaks of insects and diseases). The average area of wildfires during last years is ~6.5 thousand ha year1 and area affected by biogenic disturbances between 500 and 700 thousand ha. The disturbance regimes were accelerated during the two last decades.

Almost 4% of the total land area of the country is presented by protective territories, and forests comprise about 50% of this area. About 14% of forests are presented by specially protected areas. Such a high level of ecologisation is explained by the shortage of forests in vast regions of the country and by unsatisfactory structure of vegetation cover of landscapes and quality of agricultural lands. Ukraine has the highest over the global the share of tilled land 57.5% of the total land area and almost 80% of the agricultural land. Due to high level of erosion, salinity, other negative

1. ˲ ˲

processes, quality of agricultural land is unsatisfactory. Quality of the atmosphere and water is also unsatisfactory in major part of the territory.

About 3.5 million ha are contaminated by radionuclides after the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Station that put limitations on forest management activities in one-fourth of the state forest enterprisers and resulted in substantial reduction of harvested non-wood forest products.

By estimates, only 11% of Ukrainian land is estimated as those which have favorable ecological condition and 18% a satisfactory one. Other 22% have a conflict condition, 25% pre-crises and 24% have a crises condition.

Under current social and economic conditions, forest is considered as one of a very few real and effective tools for protection and rehabilitation of environment and natural landscapes. Ukraine has a unique experience in aforestation, particularly in forest steppe and steppe.

Quality of information about forests and forest management is different for forests managed by different agencies. Relatively reliable and updated forest inventory data exist for forests which are managed by the state forest authorities (about two-thirds of the total forest area).

Information about forests of other stakeholders (forests of local selfgovernment, forests on agricultural land, military forests etc.) is obsolete and its accuracy is unknown. Within this study, a special information base has been developed for assessing a number of important biophysical indicators of Ukrainian forest (e.g., live biomass by components, Net Primary Production) which does not account for by forest inventory.

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