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, : (Carbon, climate, and land-use in Ukraine: Forest sector) Book May 2014 READS 5 authors, including: Anatoly Shvidenko ...

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The world forestry, particularly in developed countries, is in a process of transition. The paradigm of exceptional importance of the provisional services of forests remains in the past. Understanding that forest is responsible for stabilization of the Earth climate system changes many traditional concepts and approaches of forest science and forest management. This is clearly presented in forest policies of developed countries. For instance, a new Forest strategy of the European Union is based on the three guiding principles that stresses the need of sustainable management and the multifunctional use of forests; resource efficiency and optimizing the contribution of forests and the forest sector to development and growth of rural territories; and global forest responsibility and promoting of sustainability of the forest sector. This strategy could serve a good example for defining the future ways of further development of forest management in Ukraine.

Practical implementation of multi-service essence of forests generates new and complicated problems for the Ukrainian forestry.

Transition to intensive forest management, i.e. to a system that introduces a special set of such activities like development of elite plantations, selection of high productive native species and aliens, improvements of site conditions on wetlands, fertilization of premature and mature stands, maximizating the use of the entire spectrum of forest services based on implementation of ecologically friendly technologies of interactions of ̲ ʲ human and forests etc., might provide the 2 fold increase of forest productivity during 100 year period (Nilsson et al., 2011). Evidently, intensification of forest management should become part of future forest management strategies. However, intensive forest management could come in conflict with some forest services, such biodiversity, protection of soil and water etc. All this requires a clearly defined national forest policy and preliminary consideration of possible conflicts and compromises.

Development of such policies and strategies is an urgent task for forest science and practice in Ukraine.

Similar problems have already become part of forest professional discussions in different countries. For instance, Swedish foresters suppose that introduction of a highly intensive methods of silviculture with application of fertilizers might impact biodiversity, quality of soil and surface water in an evident negative way. At the landscape level, this generates new elements of possible strategies of forest land use: 1) only lands with minimal protection capacity should be used for this goal (in Sweden this problem is solves using nature conservation score, NCS); 2) intensive plantations should be distributed over the landscape in a way, which would minimize fragmentation of forest cover; 3) quality and amount of key structure elements, which provide biodiversity (snags, old living trees etc.), should be maintained at the landscape level; and 4) intensive forest management should not be introduced on forest land of high protective importance. Evidently, effective implementation of such actions would require corresponding legislation, administrative tools and new models for planning, realization and monitoring of the results (Strengbom et al., 2011).

Understanding of climate change impacts on forests, forest management and forest sector as a whole has specifics which are tied with a long period lifespan of major forest forming species. Thus, forest management of incoming decades can be only an adaptive forest management. In some, particularly vulnerable regions (for example, in south Steppe), transforming adaptation should be considered. However, adaptation cannot be considered as an only activity that is localized within individual natures components, e.g. forests or agriculture, or national economys branches. The EU Green Book on Adaptating to climate change in Europe options for EU action (EU, 2007) defines that adaptation is an overall global and national problem that has four backgroundal pillars: 1) a need of early actions; 2) integrating adaptation into EU external actions; 3) reducing uncertainty by expanding the

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knowledge base through integrated climate research; and 4) involving European society, business and public sector in the preparation of coordinated and comprehensive adaptation strategies.

Research in Canada and Sweden shows that the success of preparation to climate change and effective struggle with acceleration of natural disturbances depend on political systems of countries, their preparedness to rapidly changing conditions, maturity of civil society and potential for providing relevant actions in a proper time. While economic developments, as a major long-term tendency of capitalist countries, lead to privatization, concentration of capital and growth of risk for individual companies and their economic resources, decrease the role of states in management of renewable resources, climate change generates particular challenges to existing institutions and their possibilities to effectively act.

Forest sector (i.e. its economic, social and cultural contribution to life standards and welfare of population) is an open system which uninterruptedly interacts with other natural, social and economic systems and is impacted by many processes. Appearance of international climate policy, progress in energy systems, changes of management systems, and spatial shift in land-use systems are most important among these processes. Globalization causes the displacement of production and consumption of wood products to the Southern hemisphere. However, it is not expected that this will substantially impact the Ukrainian forest sector.

The main raw material service of Ukrainian forests is in availability and possibility for broadening of production of valuable wood of such species like oak, ash, beech that will remain a deficit product for indefinitely long period of time.

Complicated tasks should be solved by the Ukrainian forestry.

Overall, the capacity of drivers of any social, scientific, technical or technological progress is defined by level of national development, maturity of civil society, and by level of democratic organization of countries. Ukraine has to pass a long and thorny path in order to achieve the level of state governance that is in developed countries of Europe and Northern America. Up to now, there are a lot of heritage from the Soviet era in the society and, particularly, in the forest sector. This has some advantages and evident shortcomings. An advantage is the state property on forests. An advantage is that the high level of national forest science and knowledge of systemic indicators of forests are satisfactory for ̲ ʲ transition to sustainable forest management, at least up to now. (Bobko, 2011). However, slow and inconsistent realization of necessary reforms, particularly with respect of transition to new social and economic interactions, hinders the rate of the progress. Much of current forest legislation is inherited from the soviet times and do not correspond to the reality. For instance, the official recoupment of the state budget expenditures on forest and hunting management is 11.6% (that was indicated in the sate budget for 2011, available at http//:zakon.rada.gov.ua/cgabmin/lows/main/cgs?nreg=285717), this is an evidence of insufficient development of economic prerequisites of forest management and the lack of decent economic policy in use of renewable natural resources.

There are many problems and conflicts in the current world. Billions od people do not have enough food, access to water of acceptable quality and modern sources of energy. With respect to use of natural resources and quality of environment, the current population to a substantial extent spends the resources of future generations. The world population grows in an uncontrolled way that will generate the threatening problems in the nearest future. Megatrends of the world dynamics are unprecedented in bothchanges rates and their diversity. Character of interactions between South and North is changing rapidly. Developing countries play increasing role in all major aspects of human activity ecological, social, economic.

Climatic change generates unprecedented by complexity problems. By a number of indicators, anthropogenic transformation of environment moves the Earth climatic system out of boundaries of planetary stability.

Mounting problems on water access grow over vast territories.

Deforestation has been continuing, although its rate slightly decrease during the last decade.

Under such conditions, solid and advanced land management policies, preservation of land as a major precondition of the existence of the nation and its well-being, maintenance of actual and development of new forests as a principle natural custodian of land and water, understanding that the national progress and prosperity could be provided by only the nation and state these are far not all but crucial prerequisites without performance of which any achievement of adequate well-being for the current and future generation during a historically short time is impossible.

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