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, : (Carbon, climate, and land-use in Ukraine: Forest sector) Book May 2014 READS 5 authors, including: Anatoly Shvidenko ...

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2. ֲ Ѳ Բ ˲Ѳ Summary Live biomass (LB) of Ukrainian forests was estimated based on data of forest inventory by forest enterprises (of the total amount of ~350) which are managed by the State Agency of Forest Resources of Ukraine (SAFRU) and aggregated data by oblast for other forest owners. This basic detailed estimate has been done for 2002 as a year with most recent available forest inventory data for forests managed by the state forest authorities. The estimates for 2011 used official data for forests managed by the SAFRU and updated aggregated information for forests of other Ministries and Agencies at the oblast level. A spatially distributed system of multidimensional regression equations was used for calculation of biomass conversion factors (BCF). The BCF equations have been parameterized based on measurements on sample plots established in Ukrainian forests with some use of data from neighboring regions of Northern Eurasia which are represented in the special database (available at www.iiasa.ac.at/Research/FOR/ESM models/Tools/Data/Russian Forests&Forestry). The models of BCF have been basically represented in form of equations (3.4) and (3.5) which include variables available from data of the State Forest Account by forest enterprises age, site index and relative stocking by dominant species and geographical regions.

The total LB in forests of Ukraine for 2002 was estimated at 1288 Tg of dry organic matter or 641 Tg C that corresponds to the average density at 6.75 kg Cm2. LB of trees contains 96.5% of the total amount of LB of forest ecosystems. Of this amount 77.2% were stored in aboveground wood (of which stem over bark comprises at 65.9%), 16.9% in roots and 2.4% in foliage. Lower layers of forest ecosystems contain a relatively small amount of LB 1.1% in understory (including shrubs and undergrowth) and 2.3% in green forest floor.

The estimates for 2011 show a substantial increase of the total amount of LB in Ukrainian forests which reached 1524 Tg of dry matter or 758 Tg C that is ~12% more to the values of 2002, and the increase of the carbon density from to 6.75 kg Cm2 in 2002 to 7.93 kg Cm2 in 2011 (+12%). This result follows from the substantial increase of growing stock according to the State Forest Account2011 on average by 11%, from 186 m3ha1 in 2002 to 209 in 2011 m3ha1. These dynamics are mostly explained by aging of forests and excess of increment over harvest and losses. This demonstrates consequent increase of LB density from

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5.50 kg Cm2 in 1988 (Lakida et al., 1996) to 6.26 kg Cm2 in 1996 ( ., 2004), and to 7.93 kg Cm2 in 2011.

Distribution of LB by species and age has a high correlation with growing stock volume of stands. Forests dominated by coniferous species comprise 44.0%, hard wood deciduous 46.0% and soft wood deciduous 10.0% of the total live biomass of the countrys forest ecosystems.

Distribution of LB by age groups is following: young stands (two first age classes) comprises 9.8% of the total amount; middle-aged stands 51.2%, immature 20,9%, and mature and overmature stands 18.1%. The average net phytomass increment is estimated at 2.6 t d.m.year1 that could be compared with the net average increment by growing stock volume of 3.5 m3year1.

Inventory of coarse woody debris (CWD), which includes snags, logs, stumps, and dry branches of living trees was provided by oblast based on forest inventory databases and results of measurements on sample plots. The total stock of CWD is estimated at 26.6 Tg C or 2.77 Mg Cha1, or 3.3% of the total LB of forest ecosystems.

A systems analysis of all recognized sources of uncertainty allowed us to conclude that the total amount of LB in Ukrainian forests is likely defined with the error of 68% (CI 0.90). The available initial data are not sufficient to reliably assess the value and sign of the bias of this estimate: likely it is in limits of several percents.

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3.1.1. - г . ˳ , ( ) ( ) . ֳ ᒺ . г (Gross Primary Production GPP); - (Net Primary Production, NPP) , ; (Net Ecosystem Production, NEP) - ; - (Net Biome Production, NBP) (Net Ecosystem Carbon Balance, NECB). ֳ , , .

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NPP , (.,http://www-eosdis.ornl.gov/NPP/npp_home.html;

http://www.iiasa.ac.at/Research/ESM /Download data/) (. Cannell, 1982; , 2010), .

. NPP (, ). , NPP , , . , NPP .

, NPP ( in situ) . NPP, - (VOC-Volatile Organic Compounds). (fine roots), NPP. 17,5% 33% NPP (Vogt ., 1996; Jackson ., 1997a), 糿 NPP,

3. ֲ ί -ֲ . NPP 60% NPP (Vogt, ., 1996). , 3.1 NPP , .

3.1 NPP NBP , C11 NPP NBP;

. Ciais et al. (2005) DGVM* b c 4,77 (1,53) a NPP 6,17 (1,82) 4,48 g 3,71 (0,27) e 1,07 (0,47) f 0,51 (0,55) d 0,13 (0,18) a NBP 1,06 (0,59) 0,73 (0,30) g 0,79 (0,15) h 0,75 (0,26)i * Dynamic Global Vegetation Models.

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, Nabuurs et al. (2003).

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