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² ˲ Ͳ ² ˲ : в ̳ - , . , 1622 2013 ...

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Suggested research methods in Slovak Primeval Beech Forests as World Natutral Heritage. Originality of the proposed research methods results from the fact that so far, neither in Slovakia nor in Europe and worldwide, the basic ecological processes of the unique Primeval Beech Forests of the Carpathians World Natural Heritage have been not studied using the modern methods. The recent Ukrainian-Swiss World Natural Heritage research was focused mainly on the dynamics of development stages and on the production potential of beech forests (Commarmot et al. , 2000; Hamor and Commarmot, 2005). In previous research works on primeval forest in Slovakia (Korpe, 1989, 1995; Saniga, 2011; Saniga and Schtz, 2002) the method of the research of ecological complexity, resilience and the effectiveness of the solar energy dissipation through evaluation of the microclimate of ecosystems in their succession development stages was not applied yet. The research of Primeval Beech Forests will be aimed on the derivation of an indicator of ecological integrity, the ecological stability and the sustainability of ecological processes of the World Heritage. Research on the dynamics of ecological resilience and response to the current global stress factors will enable to predict the functional potential sustainability of ecosystems of the World Heritage and the scientifically supported real sustainability of ecosystem services. The Primeval Beech Forests with the original tree species composition are important model territories enabling research and application of knowledge about the natural development processes in undisturbed beech ecosystems. They are unique in the global context and their protection can be provided only in the presence of conservation initiatives and interested local authorities and institutions responsible for their management.

Suggested methods:

M1: Research of present landscape-ecological and hydric potential M2: The natural hazards research M3: The research of the phytocenoses ecological processes, structure and dynamics M4: Research of the macrofungal communities in natural forest M5: Research of deadwood impact on the epigeic communities M6: Research of biomass, soil microorganism activity and diversity, nutrient cycle and soil physical-chemical characteristics in relation to the herb layer structure M7: Research the ecological complexity expresses the measure of ecological system organization and orders, while the ecological integrity expresses especially the integrity, undisturbance and the functionality of the system emphasizing its original ecological processes and organization M8: Research of Ecological stability of the ecosystems M9: Research of potential the area for the sustainable tourism

1. Clements, F.E., 1916: Plant Succession. Carnegie Inst. Wash. Publ. 242. 512 pp.

2. Commarmot, B., Duelli, P., Chumak, V., 2000: Urwaldforschung Beispiel Biosphrenreservat Transcarpatien. Birmensdorf, Switzerland: Naturwerte in Ost und West. Publ. zur Tagung Forum fuer Wissen, WSL, p. 6168.

3. Hairston, N.G., 1989: Ecological Experiments. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.

4. Hamor, F., Commarmot, B., (eds), 2005: Natural Forests in the Temperate Zone of Europe Values and Utilisation. International Conference in Mukachevo, Transcarpathia, Ukraine, October 13 17, 2003. Rakhiv, Ukraine: Carpathian Biosphere Reserve, Birmensdorf, Switzerland: Swiss Federal Research Institute WSL. 112 p.

5. Holling, C.S., 2001: Understanding the Complexity of Economic, Ecological, and Social Systems. Ecosystems (2001) 4: 390-405. IUCN/UNEP/WWF, 1991: Caring for the Earth. Gland, Switzerland, 228 pp.

6. Korpe,., 1989: Pralesy Slovenska [The Primeval Forests of Slovakia] Bratislava:

VEDA, 332 p. ISBN 80-224-0031-9.

7. Korpe,., 1995: Die Urwlder der Westcarpaten. Stuttgart: Fischer Verlag, 310 p.

56

8. Malcolm L. Hunter Jr., 1999: Maintainig Biodiversity in Forest Ecosystems.

Cambridge University Press. Cambridge, UK. ISBN 0-521-63768-6.

9. Morin, P.J., 1999: Comnmunity Ecology. Blackwell Science, Inc. Massachusetts, USA. 424 pp. ISBN 0-86542-350-4

10. Roe, E., 1998: Taking complexity seriously: policy analysis, triangulation and sustainable development. Boston (MA): Kluwer Academic Publishers.

11. Sabo, P., Uhliarov, E., Turisov, I., 2011: From ecological complexity towards ecological integrity. In: Volouk, I. (ed.): The Dynamics of Succession Processes, Structure and Ecological Integrity of the Slovak Karst Ecosystems (in Slovak).

Univerzita Mateja Bela v Banskej Bystrici, p. 191-214. ISBN 978-80-557-0296-4.

12. Saniga, M., 2011: Primeval beech forests. In Barna M, Kulfan J, Bublinec, E. (eds):

Beech and Beech Ecosystems of Slovakia. Bratislava: VEDA, p. 209-226. ISBN 978-80-224-1192-9.

13. Saniga, M., Schtz, J.P., 2002: Relation of dead wood course within the development cycle of selected virgin forests in Slovakia. J. For. Sci., 48, p. 513-528.

630*228.81:502.7 (477+4)

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, . , Hamor F.D. Ukrainian contribution into conservation and research of primeval beech forests. In Ukraine, which has the largest in Europe primeval beech forest sites and that has initiated the Ukrainian-Slovak-German UNESCO World Heritage Site Primeval Beech Forests of the Carpathians and the Ancient Beech Forests of Germany, a special attention is paid to their research and conservation. The Forest Code of Ukraine includes an article that guarantees the preservation of forests and forest biodiversity, the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine approved a special plan for protection and development of the Ukrainian part of the UNESCO World Heritage natural site Primeval Beech Forests of the Carpathians, the President of Ukraine issued a special order on sustainable development and improvement of mountain settlements that are located in the area of these unique natural values. A significant contribution to the preservation and study of beech forests has been made Carpathian Biosphere Reserve by organizing the International Conference Natural Forests in the Temperate Zone of Europe Values and Utilisation. Very important are also implemented Ukrainian-Swiss, Ukrainian and Ukrainian-German-Dutch research projects and construction plans for the International Training and Research Center for beech forests and sustainable development in Ukraine, CBR. And development of the Memorandum of Understanding between the Ministry of Ecology and Natural Resources of Ukraine, the Ministry of Environment of the Slovak Republic and the Federal Ministry of Environment, Environmental Protection and Nuclear Safety of the Federal Republic of Germany, as delegated by the President of Ukraine, is aimed at ensuring conservation of the Ukrainian-Slovak-German natural UNESCO World Heritage Property Primeval Beech Forests of the Carpathians and the Ancient Beech Forests of Germany, is a legal fundament for deepening the process of European beech forest conservation.

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