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52 577.4:574.002

   

University of Matej Bel, Bansk Bystrica, Slovak Republic Volouk I. From ecosystem description to the research of ecological processes. This paper deals with need for research of ecological processes in natural ecosystems and outlines basic notion of the theories of ecological complexity and integrity of living systems. The complexity of living systems of nature emerges not from a random association of a large number of interacting factors rather from a smaller number of controlling processes. Ecosystems are self-organized, and a small set of critical processes create and maintain this self-organization. Ecological succession can be explained on the basis of ecosystems thermodynamics. This dynamic concept of ecological research is reflected in the methodology of ecological integrity assessment of ecosystems and landscapes. The principal knowledge is that the era of ecosystem research via description of associations is over. We are now in an era of transformation, in which ecosystem research must turn to study of complexity, integrity, resilience, stability and other ecological processes.

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Introduction. One important goal of community ecology is to understand the origin, maintenance, and consequences of biological diversity within local communities. Different processes, operating on very different timescales, can influence the number and identify of species in community (Morin, 1999). Like many fields of modern biology, community ecology began as a descriptive science. Early community ecology was preoccupied with identifying and listing the species found in particular localities (Clements, 1916). Communities change over time, ofen in ways that are quite repeatable.

But what processes drive temporal patterns of community change, and why are those patterns so regular within a given area? Different communities can also contain very different number of species. Do communities with many species function differently from those with fewer species? How do similar species manage to coexist in diverse communities? Our ability to answer these questions says something important about our understanding of the sources of biological diversity and the processes that maintain biodiversity in increasingly stressed and fragmented natural ecosystems.

Modern community ecology has progressed beyond basic description of patterns, and often experiments can identify which processes create particular patterns (Hairston, 1989). Community ecology has developed rapidly in the last two decades of 20th Century, driven on by new and more sophisticated research techniques, advances in mathematical theory and modeling, and the increasing pressure on the environment wrought by humans.

Ecosystems consist of one or more communities, together with their abiotic surroundings. Ecosystem ecologist often come closer than community ecologist to studying the workings of entire communities, although they often do so by lumping many species into large functional groups such as producers and decomposers. The processes of energy and material flow that interest ecosystem ecologicts are certainly affected in no small way by interactions among species (Morin, 1999).

Hierarchies and adaptive cycles comprise the basis of ecosystems and social-ecological systems across scales. Together they form a panarchy.

According to Holling (2001) there are two approaches to complexity. One of them views complexity as anything we do not understand, because there are apparently a large number of interacting elements. The appropriate approach is to embrace the complexity and resulting uncertainty and analyze different subsets of interactions, each of which seem relevant from a number of fundamentally different operational and philosophical perspectives (Roe, 1998).

An alterantive view suggests that the complexity of living systems of nature emerges not from a random associations of a large number of interacting factors rather from a smaller number of controlling processes.

These systems are self-organized, and a small set of critical processes create and maintain this self-organization. Self-organization is term that characterizes the development of complex adaptive systems, in which multiple outcomes typically are possible depending on accidents of history (Holling, 2001).

The research of ecosystem ecological processes outlines basic notions of the theories of ecological complexity and non-equilibrum thermodynamics of living systems and their potential application in the field of ecosystem ecological integrity assessment (Sabo et al., 2011). Ecological integrity can be evaluated in two ways: first, on the basis of calculation of ecosystem efficiency of solar energy dissipation and second, adding also the evaluation of vegetation structure and diversity of vascular plants to reflect both richness and naturalness of vegetation.

54 Biological or biotic integrity refers to the completeness or wholeness of a biological system, including presence of all the elements at appropriate densities and occurrence of all the processes at appropriate rates. Biological integrity explicitly includes biological processes whereas in many definitions of biodiversity these are only implicit.

Ecosystem integrity (synonym for four terms: ecosystem health, ecological health, ecosystem integrity, ecological integrity) comprehends a relationship between communities of organisms and their physical environments: chiefly water, air, soil, and climate. There is a substantial link between the concepts of biodiversity and ecosystem integrity. Ecosystem integrity is broader than biological integrity because it encompasses the physical environment. In practice, the biotic integrity concept is usually applied to ecosystems and only rarely to genetic systems. In theory the concept of biotic integrity is broader because it includes genes and evolutionary processes that are quite tangential to ecosystem structure and function.

The ecological process is understand as a continuous action or series of action that is governed or strongly influenced by one or more ecosystems (a system of plants, animals and other organisms together with the non-living components of their environment). Natural ecosystem is understand as an ecosystem where since the industrial revolution (say 1750) human impact (1) has been no greater than that of any other native species, and (2) has not affected the ecosystems structure. Human impact excludes changes of global extent, such as climate change due to global warming (IUCN/UNEP/ WWF, 1991).

Sustainability is the ability to maintain something over a period of time withouth diminishing it (Malcolm L. Hunter, 1999). Sustainability is the capacity to create, test, and maintain adaptive capability. Development is the process of creating, testing, and maintaining opportunity. The phrase that combines the two, sustainable development refers to the goal of fostering adaptive capabilities and creating opportunities. It is term that describes a logical partnership (Holling, 2011).



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National Academy of Sciences o f Ukraine Institute o f Ecology o f the Carpathians ECOLOGICAL POTENTIAL OF TERRESTRIAL ECOSYSTEMS Edited by Mykhailo Holubets, academician o f N A S o f Ukraine P O L L Y CO.LTD LV IV 2003 㳿 /' /' ò ֲ . . 2003 574/578 + 577.4 . . , . . , . ....

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