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Considering the selection of ungulates among understory species browsing on European ash (Fraxinus excelsior) and blackberry (Rubus spp.) were conspicuous, meanwhile beech was avoided. Proportion of beech in the understory biomass removed by ungulate browsing was negligible; mainly ash and sometimes blackberry dominated the consumption.

Fig.3. Proportion of different woody species in the understory biomass removed by ungulate browsing.

Discussion. Advantages of an uneven-aged forestry system against evenaged one from the point of view of forest biodiversity conservation are clear.

But in addition it seems that close to nature management of beech forest can be also profitable by several reasons. Lack of fences against large game species, which is used typically around clear-cut areas of even-aged forests, is a main factor in diminishing the costs of forest management. Other important fact is the dense natural regeneration of beech with very low mortality caused by deer. It means that no expense for artificial renewal of the stand is needed.

Finally it is very important that ungulate browsing impact is not evenly distributed on different woody species. Large herbivores select among different plant foods; in this area they mainly browsed European ash and blackberry and did not consume beech leaves and sprouts. We can interpret this selective effect as a natural supporting mechanism of ungulates saving 184 money to forest managers by retarding the competitor tree and shrub species of beech. Selective impact of ungulates should also be essential in the long-term dynamics of virgin beech forests.

Acknowledgements. Our work was supported by Pilis Parkforest J.S.C.

Pter Cspnyi had outstanding role in establishing close to nature forestry and long-term research project in the area. Many students and colleagues participated enthusiastically in field-work and data analyses. This paper was supported by the Jnos Bolyai Research Scholarship of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (to Katona, K.) and South East Europe Transnational Cooperation Programme (SEE/B/0010/2.3/X).

1. Gordon, I.J., Prins, H.H.T. (Eds.) (2008): The ecology of browsing and grazing.

Ecological Studies 195. Springer. 328 pp.

2. Katona, K., Kiss, M., Bleier, N., Szkely, J., Nyeste, M., Kovcs, V., Terhes, A., Fodor,., Olajos, T., Rasztovits, E., Szemethy, L. (2013): Ungulate browsing shapes climate change impacts on forest biodiversity in Hungary. Biodiversity and Conservation, 22(5):1167-1180. doi: 10.1007/s10531-013-0490-8.

3. Milad, M., Schaich, H., Konold, W. (2012): How is adaptation to climate change reected in current practice of forest management and conservation? A case study from Germany. Biodiversity and Conservation. doi:10.1007/s10531-012-0337-8.

502.752:502.7

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Kvakovska I.M., Kopach V.O. Rare floristic and phytocoenotic diversity of virgin forest of the Uzhansky NNP. Results of floristic and phytocoenotic biodiversity of the Uzhansky NNP are provided, 26 species of higher vascular plants being under protection of sozological lists on international, state and regional levels are found together with 3 endemic species, 10 plant groups listed in the Green Book of the Ukraine.

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(2009) 16 Lycopodium annotinum, Huperzia selago, Cystopteris sudetica, Lunaria rediviva, Sorbus torminalis, Lathyrus laevigatus, Atropa belladonna, Scopolia carniolica, Lilium martagom, Allium ursinum, Galanthus nivalis, Leucojum vernum, Festuca drymeia, Epipactis helleborine, Epipactis purpurata, Neottia nidus-avis.

9 Dryopteris affinis subsp. borreri, D. cristata, D. expansa, Asplenium scolopendrium, Cerastium sylvaticum, Aconitum moldavicum subsp. hosteanum, A. gayeri, Cortusa matthioli, Tozzia alpina subsp. carpatica.

Aconitum moldavicum subsp. hosteanum, A. gayeri, Campanula serrata.

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Fagetum (sylvaticae) lunariosum (redivivae), Acereto (pseudoplatani) Fagetum (sylvaticae) phyllitiodosum (scolopendrii), ceretum (pseudoplatani) alliosum (ursini), Aceretum (pseudoplatani) athyriosum (filix-feminae), Aceretum (pseudoplatani) lunariosum (redivivae), Aceretum (pseudoplatani) mercurialidosum (perennis), Fagetum (sylvaticum) adenostylosum (alliariae), Fagetum (sylvaticae) alliosum (ursini), Fagetum (sylvaticum) dryopteridosum, Fagetum (sylvaticae) symphytosum (cordatae).




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Klapchuk V.M. The forests of Halychyna: archeography problem. The article gives characteristic of the archival sources containing information on the forest resources of Halychyna (Galicia) region of Ukraine.

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