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At the Balkans the National and Nature Parks are present within all countries, Bulgaria, Montenegro, Croatia, Serbia, Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Macedonia.

In Bulgaria the forest massifs cover ca. 30 % territory and most of them are located in 3 National Parks (Central Balkan, Rila and Pirin, all of them under aegis of UNESCO), 4 Biosphere Reserves and 13 Nature Parks (Strandzha, Vrachansky Balkan, Bolgarka and others), with total area ca. 200 000 ha. The forests with participation of Fagus sylvatica are present at most territories but mainly in the National Parks and forementioned Nature Parks.

Within them the most important is the Central Balkan located in the highest part of the mountain massif Stara Planina in which at the territory more than 60 000 ha the mixed Abies-Fagus and Acer-Fagus forests with participation of F. orientalis Lipski and F. oesiaca (K.Maly) Czeczott. are located. Besides, there are ca 18 000 ha of the pure Fagus forests, and part of them are the virgin ones because some trees there are more than 100 years old. Therefore, this Park in 2011 was submitted to UNESCO for the status of the World Heritage.

The pure Fagus forests of the various state and age are noted also in the Parks Rila and Pirin with the areas 81 000 ha and 26 500 ha, and exactly in Rila the very old trees of Fagus are present. Meanwhile, the Park Pirin in 1983 was included into the List of the nature objects of UNESCO. The old Fagus forests are noted in the Nature Parks Strandzha, Vrachansky Balkan and Bolgarka.

Within them in Stranza located in the eastern-southern part of Bulgaria the largest within Bulgaria massif of the broad-leaved forests is noted. Its area is ca. 100 000 ha and Fagus orientalis predominate there. Meanwhile, in the Nature Parks Vitosha and Bilasytza with areas 26 000 ha and 12 000 ha, there are some mixed forests with participation of Fagus but also the fragments of the pure Fagus forests.

In Montenegro the National Park Durmitor and the Nature Park Biogradska Gora are important because of the presence of the coniferous and broad-leaved forests under protection. Durmitor occuppies the southern part of the Dinarian Upland and the Plateau Komarnitsa with area ca. 40 000 ha and it includes 48 mountain peaks with altitude over 2000 m. There are the large massifs of forests, mainly from Pinus, Abies, Quercus and Acer but also the mixed Fagus-Abies forests. Besides, the fragments of the pure Fagus forests (from Fagus moesiaca) are noted only on the mountain Sinjavina. Therefore, the Park Durmitor in 1980 was included into the List of the nature objects of the World Heritage of UNESCO. Meanwhile, the area of the Park Biogradska Gora situated in the Northern Bulgaria is 5 400 h, and the Fagus forests (mainly virgin ones) occupy there ca. 1 600 ha. Moreover, the fragment of this virgin forest with area ca. 150 ha was recognized like relict one because it includes a lot of centenary trees more than 50 m height. The forementioned facts was the base for including this park into the List of candidates on the status of the World Heritage of UNESCO.

In Croatia, there are 4 National Parks (Plitvice Lakes, Rysnjak, Paklenitsa and Northern Velebit) and 3 Nature Parks (Medvednitsa, Uchka and Biokovo) with total area ca. 110 000 ha. Within them, the National Park Plitvice Lakes is situated at the territory of the Dinarian Upland (with total area ca. 30 000 ha) and it is regarded as valuable one because of presence of 16 picturesque lakes and their coasts. Therefore, in 1978 it was included into the List of the World Heritage of UNESCO. There are the forests, mainly of Abies, Picea and Pinus, but also the fragments of Fagus forests. The Park Rysnjak is situated at the massif Kotor between the Alps and Dinarian Mountains. Its area is ca. 6 300 ha and it is valuable too because of presence of forests of Abies, Picea and Pinus but sometimes Fagus. Meanwhile, the vegetation of the Parks Paklenitsa and Northern Velebit (with total area ca. 20 000 ha) is characterised by the Mediterranean peculiarities (including the presence of Palms) because of their disposition in the southern part of Croatia. Despite of this facts, there are the fragments of the Fagus virgin forests.

At the territory of Serbia, there are 3 National Parks, Tara, Kopaonik and Frushka-Gora. Within them the Park Tara is the most valuable because almost all its territory (ca. 20 000 ha) are the mountain slopes covered mainly by the mixed forests of Abies, Picea and Fagus orientalis, and it is regarded as the most forested part of the all Balkans and maybe all Europe. Meanwhile, at the territory of the Park Kopaonik situated at the Serbian Upland, with area ca.

12000 ha, there are a lot of the forest massifs from Pinus, Picea, Quercus and Fagus. Moreover, a part of the Fagus trees are regarded as the relict ones. The Park Frushka-Gora, with area ca. 25 000 ha, is situated at the territory of the Pannonian Plain and its nature vegetation is partly replaced by vineyards.

Nevertheless, the natural mixed forests of Quercus saxatilis, Tilia and Fagus europaeus exist there, and since 1960 this Park is under aegis of UNESCO.

In Albania which is located in the western part of the Balkan peninsula, there are 4 National Parks, Lures, Theth, Jalina Khotova and Jalina Drenova with total area ca. 6 000 ha. The forests are noted there, mainly with predomination of Pinus, Picea and Quercus, but the fragments of the pure Fagus forests are present too.

148 Meanwhile, in Bosnia and Gerzegovina, there are 3 National Parks and 3 Nature Parks, with total area ca. 20 000 ha, in which the fragments of the mixed Fagus-Pinus and Fagus-Quercus forests are noted. Besides, in the Parks Tisovac and Kakanj the Fagus forests are present and a part of them is regarded as the virgin ones, including the Fagus treees ca. 300 years old (Ballian et al., 2003).

In Macedonia one National Park Mavrovo (with area ca. 73 000 ha) exists. It is situated on the slopes of mountains Pinda and Rodos, and within its vegetation the coniferous and Fagus forests predominate.

In Ukraine the massifs of the natural Fagus forests are situated mainly in the Carpathians and close territories, but also in the Podillia, RoztotchaOpylya, Prydnisrovya and partly in the Crimea (Carpathian Biosphere Reserve and 8 National Nature Parks having the total territories ca. 150 000 ha). Taking to the consideration the very fundamental modern data on these forests in the Ukrainian National Parks and Reserves, we believe that it is more expedient to listen the reports on the Fagus forests in Ukraine of other authors.

Meanwhile, we should like to summarize our short survey of the Fagus forests in Europe with the accent on the nature objects with participation of Fagus already included into the honourable List of the World Heritage UNESCO and the candidate for including into this List.

The first group of objects consists of the National Park Lakes Plitvice (Croatia, 1979), National Park Durmitor (Montenegro, 1980), National Park Pirin (Bulgaria, 1983), and also the forementioned joint nomination Primeval beech forests of the Carpathians and old beech forests of Germany from the Carpathian Biosphere Reserve, Uzhanski National Natural Park (Ukraine), National Natural ark Stuzica (Slovakia) and 5 Nature Parks, Henig, Jasmund, Muritz, Western Grumzinger-Forst and Kellerwald (Germany, 2011).

Meanwhile, the second group of the nature objects includes the candidates on the status of the World Heritage: the National Parks Tatranski, Bukovski Verkhy (Slovakia), Palava, White Carpathians (Czechia), Grosses Valsertal (Austria), Central Balkan (Bulgaria), National Parks Biogradska Gora (Montenegro) and Frushka-Gora (Serbia).

At present time the third group of the nature objects including the valuable Fagus forest massifs is going to be examined in UNESCO (Gamor, 2012). The general title of this joint nomination is European World Heritage of the Fagus forests, and it has to include the proper objects at the territories of Austria, Bulgaria, Croatia, France, Greece, Italy, Romania, Serbia, Slovenia, Spain, Switzerland and maybe some others.

1. Ballian D., Cengic I., Visnjic C., Vojnikovic S., Kunovac S., Ibrahimspahic A., Trestic T. Comparison of the structures of the protection beech forests Tisovac and the primary beech forest Kakanj. In: Natural Forests in Temperate Zone of Europe




140 .


Values and Utlization. Birmensdorf-Rakhiv, 2003. P. 160-161.

2. Brzezicki B. Long-term dynamics of a natural stands composition and structure: a case sudy in the Bialowieza National Park, nort-eastern Poland. In: Natural Forests in Temperate Zone of Europe. Ibid., 2003. P. 42-43.

3. Fratila E.-C. Structural characteristics of a virgin beech forests in south-western Romania. In: Natural Forests in Temperate Zone of Europe. Ibid, 2003. P. 184-185.

4. Gamor F. The European process of the preservation of the Fagus forests. Green Carpathians, 1-2, 2012. Uzhgorod. P. 9-10 (in Ukrainian).

5. Gilg O., Schwoehrer C. Protection and conservation of old-growth forests. Ibid., 2003. P. 70-71.

6. Girgin V. et al. Les Forets Vierges de Roumanie. Foret, Wellone, 1984.

7. Johann E. From forest utilization to forest conservation: historical development of natural forest reserves in the Southern Limestone Alps of Austria. In: Natural Forests in Temperate Zone of Europe Values and Utilization. BirmensdorfRakhiv, 2003. P. 80-81.

8. Korpel S. Pralesy Slovenska. Veda. Bratislava, 1989. 238 p.

9. Kweczlich I. Permanent sample plots in a case study in Bukowa Gora Forest Reserve in the Roztoczanski National Park, Poland: In: Natural Forests in Temperate Zone of Europe Values and Utilization. Birmensdorf-Rakhiv, 2003. P. 80-81.

10. Parviainen, J. Strict forest reserves in Europe efforts to enhance biodiversity and strengthen research related to natural forests in Europe. 1999. In: Parviainen, J., Little, D., Doyle, M., OSullivan, A., Kettunen, M., Korhonen, M., (eds) Research in Forest Reserves and Natural Forests in European Countries Country reports for COST Action E4: Forest Reserves Research Network. EFI Proceedings 16, 1999. p. 7 33.

11. Parviainen J. Virgin and natural forests in the temperate zone of Europe. In: Natural Forests in Temperate Zone of Europe Values and Utilization. BirmensdorfRakhiv, 2003. P. 28-29.

12. Philips Consice World Atlas. Tenth Ed. Roy. Geogr. Soc. 128 Photos, 223 p. 2000.

13. Volouk, I. et al., High Tatras National Park Biosphere Reserve, Gradus, Martin, 1994. 554 pp.

14. Volouk, I.National Parks and Biosphere Reserves in Carphatians The Last Nature Paradises. ACANAP, Tatransk Lomnica, 1999. 248 s.

15. Volouk, I., The geobiocenological research in the natural forest ecosystems of the Carpathian protected areas. The monographical studies on national parks (3). State nature conservancy Bansk Bystrica, 2003. 122 pp.

16. Forests with participation of Fagus europaeus under protection. Regime of access:

dic.academic.ru

17. List of the objects of the World Heritage of UNESCO. Regime of access:

ru.wikipedia.org 150 630*228.8:630*2 ˲Ѳ ϲ

   

. .. , . , Ziman S.M. Survey of the beech forests in Europe. As a result of the careful analysis of the modern literature, we realized the overview of the distribution and modern state of the Fagus forests within all countries of Europe, and we paid the peculiar attention to presence and protection of these forests in the National Parks, Nature Parks and Reserves. We also noted the number of the such institutions in every country of Europe, their total areas and the areas of the forests with participation and predomination of Fagus, also the areas and state of the pure and virgin Fagus forests.

The proper accents were done on the nature objects with participation of Fagus-objects already included into the honoured List of the World Heritage of UNESCO and the candidate to this List.

, , . 350 , 7 500 000 .

(58), (52), (45), ͳ (33), (21), (17) (16), ( 4 300 000 ), ( 2 200 000 ), ͳ ( 1 800 000 ), 볿 1 600 000 ), (440 000 ), (160 000 ). (4), , ( 4 ), ᳿ (3), (2), , 㳿, ( 1).

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(Fagus sylvatica L.) ϳ , ϳ . ( , ) 300 000 , 400 000 . 700 000 4 % . , 100 000 , 7 % , .

( ) ̳ PIN-MATRA, , , (Parviainen, 2003, 2009 .).



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