«БУКОВІ ПРАЛІСИ ТА ДАВНІ БУКОВІ ЛІСИ ЄВРОПИ: ПРОБЛЕМИ ЗБЕРЕЖЕННЯ ТА СТАЛОГО ВИКОРИСТАННЯ МАТЕРІАЛИ Міжнародної науково-практичної конференції Україна, м. Рахів, 16–22 вересня 2013 року ...»
Не порушені антропогенним впливом лісові екосистеми відіграють важливу роль. Вони є тією науковою лабораторією, де можна вивчати всі процеси у природі. Тут зберігається цінна інформація, оскільки поновлення дерев у пралісах проходить виключно природним шляхом, тут збереглися різні гено-, фено- і екотипи лісових порід, які мають важливе як екологічне так і наукове значення.
Смерекові праліси НПП «Верховинський» мають важливе значення, оскільки сприяють стабілізації середовища гірських ландшафтів у найбільш холодній і вологій кліматичній зоні. Також вони служать еталоном високопродуктивних, стійких до шкідників та хвороб деревостанів, які потребують в майбутньому детального вивчення вікової структури, та інших лісівничо-таксаційних показників.
Отже ці цінні осередки природи необхідно зберегти і заповісти для майбутніх поколінь.
1. Библюк Н.І. Лісотранспорт в Гуцульських Карпатах / Н.І.Библюк, М.С.
Глушко // Історія Гуцульщини. – Т. IV. – Львів: Логос, 1999. – С. 259.
2. Глушко М.С. Шляхи сполучення та транспортні засоби в Українських Карпатах другої половини ХІХ – поч. ХХ ст. – С. 76.
3. Жалоба І.В. Пристосування рік та потоків Буковини для потреб лісосплаву в XIX – на початку XX ст. – С. 48-58.
4. Малиновський К.А. Рослинність високогір'я Українських Карпат. – К.: Наук.
Думка, 1976. – 268 с.
5. Украинские Карпаты. Природа / Голубец М. А, Гаврусевич А. Н., Загайкевич И. К. и др. – Киев: Наук. Думка, 1998. – 208 с.
142 УДК 630*228.8:630*2
Institute of Botany of the National Academy of Science, Kyiv, Ukraine Ziman S.M. Survey of the beech forests in Europe. As a result of the careful analysis of the modern literature, we realized the overview of the distribution and modern state of the Fagus forests within all countries of Europe, and we paid the peculiar attention to presence and protection of these forests in the National Parks, Nature Parks and Reserves. We also noted the number of the such institutions in every country of Europe, their total areas and the areas of the forests with participation and predomination of Fagus, also the areas and state of the pure and virgin Fagus forests.
The proper accents were done on the nature objects with participation of Fagus-objects already included into the honoured List of the World Heritage of UNESCO and the candidate to this List.
Зиман С.М. Огляд букових лісів у Європі. На підставі аналізу сучасної літератури нами здійснено огляд поширення і стану букових лісів в усіх країнах Європи, з акцентом на їх наявності й охороні в національних парках, природних парках i заповідниках. Розглянуто кількість і площі природоохоронних установ у кожній країні Європи, наявні площі лісів з участю бука та його переважанням, також чистих букових лісів, з увагою до букових пралісів і їх реліктових ділянок.
Зроблено відповідні акценти на природних об’єктах з участю бука – як уже включених до почесного Списку всесвітньої спадщини ЮНЕСКО, так і кандидатів до такого включення.
The protection of the forests is fulfilled in the National Nature Parks, Nature Parks, but also in the Reserves. At present time in Europe there are ca.
350 of these institutions, and their total territory is ca. 7 500 000 ha.
The largest number of the Nature Parks and Reserves is in Poland (58), Austria (52), Italy (45), Germany (33), Spain (21), France (17) and Bulgaria (16), and the largest areas of the forests under protection are at the territories of Poland (ca. 4 300 000 ha), France (2 200 000 ha), Germany (1 800 000 ha), Italy (1 600 000 ha), Spain (440 000 ha), Bulgaria (ca. 160 000 ha). The smallest number of the institutions which fulfill the protection of a nature is noted in Hungary (5), Albania, Switzerland (4 in everyone), Serbia (3), Greece (2), Macedonia, Norway, Slovenia (1). Nevertheless, the largest forest missives under protection are in Slovakia (Carpathians), Bulgaria, Albania (Balkans), but also in Czechia and Slovenia, the smallest ones – in Montenegro (Balkans), Spain (Pyrenees) and Greece (Mediterranean).
The area of the forestry beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) includes a part of the Northern Europe, almost all Western and Central Europe and a part of Eastern and Southern Europe. Nevertheless, the territories of the beech forests (including the primeval or virgin forests and forests close to the natural ones) occupy in Europe ca. 300 000 ha, and mixed forests in which beech predominates or take participation – another 400 000 ha. It means that all these forests occupy in Europe altogether ca. 700 000 ha (ca. 4 % from the all territory of forests). It is necessary to add that in Ukraine the forests with participation of beech cover the territories ca. 100 000 ha (ca. 7 % from the all forestry territories).
At present time the inventorying of the natural forests and the analysis of their peculiarities at the territories of the European countries is implementing (or has to implement) in limits of the International Program of the control on the nature PIN-MATRA, and this thesis mainly concerns to Slovakia, Romania and Poland having the large territories of the beech forests or forests with noticeable participation of the forestry beech (Parviainen, 2003, 2009).
So in Slovakia the forests with participation of Fagus were noted at the territories of 8 National and Nature Parks (Stuzica, Tatransky, Bukowski Verkhy, Velka Fatra, Mala Fatra, Slovensky Raj, etc., occupying territories ca.
200 000 ha – Korpel, 1989, Voloscuk et al., 1999, 2003). Within them the Fagus or beech (=primeval) forests) are noted in Stuzica only (clusters Stuzica, Vyhorlat and Haveshova occupy ca. 1000 ha), and exactly these forests were the important components of the Slovak-Ukrainian nomination which in 2007 have received the status of the World Heritage of UNESCO. Meanwhile the Tatransky National Park is located in the Vysoky Tatras it occupies the territory ca. 70 000 hа mainly at the territory of Slovakia but in Poland too.
The coniferous forests predominate here, but the mixed forests with the participation of Fagus is noted here.Therefore, including of the National Parks Tatransky and Bukowski Verkhy into the List of the candidates on the status of the World Heritage UNESCO in 2002 is very important.
At the territory of Romania (mainly at the Transylvanian Plateau and in Southern Carpathians), there are more than 10 Nature Parks (Retezat, Semenic, Fegerash, Buchedzi, Domoglad-Valea Cherni, Muntii Rodnei and others) with the total area ca. 300 000 ha. Meanwhile, the forests with participation of Fagus occupy the territories ca. 44 500 ha. It is important that the territories of the the virgin beech forests are ca. 15 000 ha in Retezat and Semenic, moreover, exactly there the tall and old trees of Fagus grow, ca. 50 m in height and 350-400 years old (Virgin, 1984; Fratila, 2003).
The number of the natural objects under protection in Poland is unique (58), and the most valuable National Parks are Tatransky, Bieszhadsky, Jaslytsky, Magursky, Volynsky, Puszcza Bukowa and others which occupy territories ca.3 000 000 ha. The forests with participation of Fagus sylvatica are noted exactly in Puszcza Bukowa but the area of Fageta forests is 470 ha only (Kweczlich, 2003 and others).
In Germany the Fagus forests occupy area ca. 200 000 ha in 8 National Parks and 25 Nature Parks (Bayerischer Wald, Hartz, Eifel, Rheinland, Rheinland, Muntz, Schonbuch and others), and part of them are regarded as 144 relict ones. As a result of the detail long-term study, five massifs or clusters of the beech forests close to natural ones (named also old ones) at the territories of Hainich in Turingia, Jasmund and Muritz at Mecklenburg-Pomerania, Western Grumzinger-Forst in Brandenburg, Kellerwald-Edersee in Gessen, with total area ca. 4 400 ha were selected. In 2011 this nomination received the status of the World Heritage of UNESCO in a such manner: it was included into the joint nomination (together with Ukraine and Slovakia) under the name “Primeval beech forests of the Carpathians and old beech forests of Germany”.
Meanwhile, the famous mountain massif Shwarzwald in the South-Western Germany (Baden-Wurtenberg) occuppiing the territory ca. 600 000 ha consists of mainly coniferous forests of Picea abies Karst., Abies alba Mill., and Pinus sylvestris L. But at the slopes of Mt. Feldberg the separate parts of the beech forests are noted.
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In Czechia, there are 3 National Parks (Krknose, Sumava and Czech Switzerland, White Carpathians), besides, 20 Nature Parks and Reserves. Most of these institutions are situated in in Sudets and Moravia and their total area is ca. 800 000 ha. Nevertheless, the Quercus and Carpinus betulus L. forests with participation of Fagus, also Fagus-Abies and Pinus-Fagus forests occupy the area only ca. 54 000 ha. Besides, the natural beech forests are noted in the National Park White Carpathians and Reserve Palava (total territory ca. 18 000 ha), therefore, in 1968 and 1996 both of them received the status of the biosphere reserves under the aegis of UNESCO.
At the territory of Italy there are 12 National Parks and 23 Natural Parks plus 89 Regional Parks and ca. 400 prohibited territories, with the tremendous total area ca. 1 000 000 ha. The most outstanding one is the National Park Gran Paradiso founded in 1922 and located mainly at the northern west (Pjemont). Its territory is ca. 70 000 ha, and about 7 000 ha are covered by the coniferous forests. Meanwhile, the forests with participation of Fagus and even poor Forest forests are present too. The National Park Chinke-Terre close to the Mediterranean coast is important too because in 1997 it was included into the List of the World Heritage of UNESCO. But the Fagusoforests or at least the mixed forests with participation of Fagus are absent there.
Nevertheless, the massif of Fagus forests occupying the territory ca. 50 000 ha is the important part of the National Park Abrucco, Lazio and Molise and it is situated in the Apennines area. Meanwhile, the National Park Gran Sasse e Monti della Laga located almost in the centre of Italy (with the area ca.
150 000 ha) is the most valuable for botanists because its the mountain slopes are covered by Quercus and partly by Fagus forests. The forests of Fagus are noted in the National Parks Pollina and Sila too.
In Austria 4 National Parks and 47 Nature Parks are situated mainly in the Inner Alps as well as in the Northern and Southern Limestone Alps with total area ca. 120 000 ha. Within them the most important are considered Untersberg, Grosses Valsertal, Kalkalpen, Vaissbach, Grunzee, Rothwald, Wienerwald, Karvendel and some others). Karvendel (embraces ca. 92 000 ha) and Grosses Valsertal (area 19 200 ha) in 2000 was included into the List of the Biosphere Reserves under the aegis of UNESCO because exactly there are a number of the mixed forests with participation of Quercus, Abies and Picea, but also with Fagus. Besides, the Fagus forests close to natural ones occupy here the area ca. 4 000 ha. As a results of the recent study, E. Johann (2003) confirmed that more than 20 % of the Austrian forests can be classified as seminatural and partly natural ones.
In Spain there are 4 National Parks with the area ca. 120 000 ha and 17 Nature Parks and Reserves with the total area ca. 320 000 ha. Within them the National Park Selva Irati is the most valuable for botanists because it is located on the eastern-northern slopes of the Pyrenees (Navarra) on which the FagusPicea-Abies forests are located. Moreover, the unique massif of the pure Fagus forests with area ca. 17 000 ha is held there, and some Fagus trees here are ca.
40 m height and more than 100 years old. Besides, it is desirable to pay attention to the Parks Picos de Europa and Ordesa y Monte Perdido with total area ca. 100 000 ha.
In France the forests under protection are at the territory of 3 National Parks, 14 Nature Parks and more than 120 Natural Reserves and they are located mainly the Northern Vogeses, Lotaringia, Normandia-Men, HautLangedok and Shartrez, with total area is ca. 2 000 000 ha. Nevertheless, the mixed forests with participation of Quercus ilex, Pinus uncinata, Castanea dentata, but also Fagus sylvatica are noted only within 4 National Parks (Pyrenees, Sevenn, Ecrins and Vanuas) with total area ca. 58 000 ha, despite the data (Gilg, Schwoehrer, 2003) on existence in France of the old Fagus forests.
7 National Parks (Aggteleky, Hortobagy, Bukk, Orsegi, Balaton, DunaDrava and Duna-Ipoly) are at the territory of Hungary, with area ca. 200 000 ha. Two of them, Aggteleky and Hortobagy, were included into the List of the World Heritage of UNESCO owing to their valuable birds and caves not by plants and forests. Nevertheless, the mountain massif Matra in the Northern Hungary is valuable for botanists because there are ca. 20 000 ha of the Carpinus-Fagus and Fagus forests.
In Slovenia, mainly at the territory of the Slovenian Upland (National Park Triglav and 3 Nature Parks with area ca. 80 000 ha) the Fagus-Pinus and Fagus-Quercus forests are noted, but there are also the rather small plots of the virgin Fagus forests.
In Greece the forests with participation of Fagus are in 2 National Parks, Pivoon and Vikos-Awou, with total area ca. 20 000 ha, but areas of the Fagus forests here are rather small.
We should like to note the massifs of the mixed forest with participation of Fagus in Great Britain (18 Nature Parks with total area ca 280 000 ha), Sweden (29 National Parks at the territory ca. 54 000 га, mainly on the south of country) within which the broad-leaved forests are present only in Stenshuwood and Soderasen. Besides, in the Switzerland (one Nature Park 146 with area ca. 30 ha). Meanwhile, the massif of the Fagus forests in Larwik close Fulke Vestfall in Norway with area ca 120 ha is the very valuable because it is the extreme northern locality of Fagus in Europe.
At the territory of the European part of Russia, there are some separate areas of the Fagus forests (Baltic spit in Kaliningrad Region) and the mixed forests with participation of Fagus, Quercus and Abies (Stavropol and St.Petersburgh Regions). The Fagus forests are noted also at the territory of Moldavia (massif Kodry with total area ca. 12 000 ha).
The massif Bialowieza Pushcha is located at the territories of Belorussia and Poland at the territory of the Bialowieza National Park and this Park was accepted in 1979 as the World Heritage by UNESCO because consisting of the nature forests of Quercus, Carpinus and Tilia but without participation of Fagus (Brzezicki, 2003).