WWW.UK.X-PDF.RU

˲ - , ,

 
<< HOME
CONTACTS




( )
.: (050)697-98-00, (067)176-69-25, (063)846-28-10
׸

( )
.: (050)697-98-00, (067)176-69-25, (063)846-28-10
׸
 >>  . C 03.00.00
Pages:     | 1 |   ...   | 13 | 14 || 16 | 17 |   ...   | 56 |

² ˲ Ͳ ² ˲ : в ̳ - , . , 1622 2013 ...

-- [ 15 ] --

   

, , ᒺ . , (- ) .

94 2 - - : /

   

- (), WWF . , . , , , - .

, , , , , .

- :

- - , : , , , .;

- ;

- .

: , . , , , , .

1. WWF , 2007 .

2. WWF , 2012 .

3. . , 2006.

4. .. : // . , 2012. . 94-99.

96 582.632.1(477.4)

CARPINUS BETULUS L.

˲Ѳ ղ IJ

   

, . , Gumenyuk .R. Hornbeam Carpinus betulus L. as a component of natural beech forests of the Western Podillia. The article highlights issues concerning occurance and role of hornbeam (Carpinus betulus L.) as part of structured beech forests of the Western Podillia.

. - (, 1999). Carpineto-Quertceta, Quertceto-Carpineta, Carpineta, Carpineto-Fraxineta. , . . Fageta, Carpineto-Fageta. , , ( 280 . .), () .

, , , , . .

, 1-2 200 3 .

: ) , ; ) () . ᒺ , - , , .

( ) , , . , , . , , , (, 2006 ).

.

. () () () (, , , 1983) , , . , , , , , . , - , () , . , . 20-30- . , .

, - . .

3 . ( 10 ) 240-300 3 . 300 3 (320-470) 1. , .

, , , .




140 .


98

1. .. - . // . 77. , 1983. .24.

2. . .

. . ., . .. . : , 2006. 408 .

3. . . 1. , 1999. 380 .

582.632.2:630*227.81:502.6:911

THE ADDITIONAL VALUES OF APENNINES

PRIMEVAL/ANCIENT BEECH FORESTS: UNIQUE COMPONENTS

FOR THEIR LONGEVITY AND COMPLEX BIOGEOGRAPHY

IN REFUGE AREAS AT THE SPECIES SOUTHERN RANGE LIMIT

   

Di Filippo A., Pedrotti F., Schirone B., Scoppola A., Ziaco E., Piovesan G. The additional values of Apennines primeval/ancient beech forests: unique components for their longevity and complex biogeography in refuge areas at the species southern range limit. We tested a large set of indicators to describe the naturalness within a beech forest network in Italy using a biogeographical approach. Structural and dendrochronological indicators served to describe the value of each forest and its history, considering how past management and landscape history interacted with biogeoclimate across complex ecological gradients in these southern refuge areas.

ij Գ ., ., ., ., ǒ ., ϳ .

:

. , 볿, . , , , 䳺 .

Beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) forests are common in Italy, covering 1035103 ha (~12 % of total forest area) over a broad geographical range that gives rise to a complex ecology. The Apennines mountains represent the southernmost limit of the species' distribution, where beech forests experience the transition between the Mediterranean and the Temperate climate. Changing conditions of climate, soil and exposure give rise to considerable compositional and structural diversity within Apennines beechwoods, e.g. a great biodiversity in geoflora, containing boreal to arcto-Tertiary elements, with phytosociological studies identifying around 40 different types of association.

One of the most interesting aspects of Italian beech forests is the surprisingly high level of ecological integrity that characterizes some stands.

Apennines beech forests are characterized by a high degree of ecological 100 continuity. Central and southern Italy were refuge areas for beech populations during the last glaciations, although Mediterranean refuges did not contribute to the colonization of central and northern Europe. Despite their long history of exploitation, patches of primeval and ancient forests are still present in the Apennines landscape. At present in the Apennines live the oldest beech trees (up to 560 years) in Europe (Fig. 1). Within the process of selecting the best sites to be included into a finite serial transnational nomination of primeval and ancient beech forests of Europe to the World Heritage List, it is thus crucial to develop and select the best indices/indicators to inform about the natural quality of our beech forests.

Figure 1. The beech tree-ring network in Italy and the maximum age detected in the best preserved old-growth forests.

The old-growth condition is a requirement of each component of the finite series to guarantee a high degree of naturalness. In the last decades a network of more than 50 beech stands showing different degrees of management impact/old-growthness degree was developed by the DendrologyLab of the Universit della Tuscia (Viterbo, Italy). Within this network, both dendroecological and structural analyses were carried out to describe the patterns, processes and history of beech forests in Italy. In our beech network, lifespan increased from roughly 100150 to over 500 years as temperature decreased with elevation from 21 to 11 C. Since tree lifespan and growth rates were affected by climate (springsummer temperature) and were inversely related to one another along elevation gradients, it is important to include in the beech network the different bioclimatic belts to represent the ongoing biological and ecological processes. Climate influences growth processes and mortality, thus contributing to shape disturbance regimes and forest structure and determining the potential longevity and structural features of tree species, particularly those like beech with large latitudinal and elevational distribution.

Thanks to the presence of old-growth stands, it is possible to quantify the impact of different types of forest management on natural resources conservation. We used a set of classical structural and chronological indicators of old-growthness, related to both living trees and deadwood, to assess the oldgrowthness degree of each forest within a network of old-growth and managed beech forests distributed over a wide latitudinal/altitudinal range in Italy.

Multivariate statistical techniques were applied to select the best indicators as well as to disentangle the effects of site-related (e.g. elevation) and humanrelated (e.g. past management) factors on their variability. A main focus regarded not only the search for thresholds in specific indicators, but also the use of their within-stand variability as a further descriptor of the old-growth status.



Pages:     | 1 |   ...   | 13 | 14 || 16 | 17 |   ...   | 56 |
 
 >>  . C 03.00.00
:

.., .. G.Grevtsova, L.Kalashnikova : 581.4: 581.16: 502.7 ..1, ..2 1 . . .. (, ); 2 ( , ) grevtsova_1940@ukr.net 7 , ...

National Academy of Sciences o f Ukraine Institute o f Ecology o f the Carpathians ECOLOGICAL POTENTIAL OF TERRESTRIAL ECOSYSTEMS Edited by Mykhailo Holubets, academician o f N A S o f Ukraine P O L L Y CO.LTD LV IV 2003 㳿 /' /' ò ֲ . . 2003 574/578 + 577.4 . . , . . , . ....

̲Ͳ ² ֲ -˲ Ͳί IJ - : - 2013 37.013.42 (075.8) 28.0 ̳ ( ̳ 1|11-10901 04.07.2013 .) : , , ³ ...

. , . , . , . ˳, . , . , B. dz, . ij, . , . , . , . , . 12- from the INTERREG III B CADSES Project...

.. ò 8 㳿, 㳿 - ̳ ϲ 58(076.1) 28.572 -53 㳿, 㳿 - ̳ ...

²IJ . DONETSK COMPARTMENT of SHEVCHENKO SCIENTIFIC SOCIETY ² . . - - 䳿 , 4-5 2008 ., . 2001 . -67 . . .20 : . 2008. 248 . ³ ...

C , 3 (73) 㳺 2013 639.3.032 . ., . ., .-. ³ вͲ ϲ , .. ...

˲ .. 1. : . .. . . / . .- -. ., 2000. 18 . 㳿 : 2. / .., .., .. . .: , 2002. 544 .: ., . .: 514-516. .. ...

̲ò ̲ ˲ Ͳ ֲ ί ( ) ( ) ϳ , . . ( 1 26.08.08) ̳ 쳿 ...

502.7:502.72(477.60) .. ., .. Ͳ ֲ ˲ ò в Ʋ , , , , , , , , , ....




( )
.: (050)697-98-00, (067)176-69-25, (063)846-28-10
׸


 
<<     |    
2013 www.uk.x-pdf.ru -