WWW.UK.X-PDF.RU

˲ - , ,

 
<< HOME
CONTACTS




( )
.: (050)697-98-00, (067)176-69-25, (063)846-28-10
׸

( )
.: (050)697-98-00, (067)176-69-25, (063)846-28-10
׸
 >>  . C 03.00.00
Pages:     | 1 |   ...   | 8 | 9 || 11 | 12 |   ...   | 56 |

² ˲ Ͳ ² ˲ : в ̳ - , . , 1622 2013 ...

-- [ 10 ] --

(22582,9 ), . , , . , , (8829 ) (. 1). , ̳ 㳿 - . , .

, (WSL) . , , , , ( ., 2010). , ( . 2000; 2003), - ( . 1997; 2007; , 2006; 2012). ֳ - , , 550 (, , 2012). (Commarmot at al., 2013) : , (Swiss, 2013) , .

. 1.

. - 62 () (Ibisch at al.,

2011) , 2 2013 ., 1-1/749 (, 2013).

, , . - ϒ (. ). , , 䒺 , - , , .

, ̳ 쳿 (ͳ, ³) 2011 㳿 , ͳ . , . , λ, ̳ - .

, , , , .

, 㳿 . , 㳿 , , - , .

, , ̳ 㳿 , ̳ ̳ , ͳ, -- ᒺ ͳ. .

1. .. : (̳ , , , 13-17 2003) // . . ., 2004, .61, 4. .115-119.

2. .., .., .., .., .., .., .., .., .. : , 2008. 85 .

3. . , // . 31 2013, 100 (5600).

4. .., .., .. . . //

. :

, 1997. . 163-182.

5. .. : , // . 2007. 1-2. . 51-60.

6. () г+20: г--, , 20-22

2012. , 2012 . 56 .

7. ., ., ., ., . () : . 242 .

8. .. : . . . . : - 㳿 , 2012. 21 .

9. .. г , // VI . . . , . 50- - . . : . . . , 2006. . 6. . 144-146.




140 .


10. ., . // . 2012, 1-2. . 23-26.

11. ., ., ., ., ³ . 64 ѳ // . : ˳ : . .-. . : , 2000. .10.4. . 99-106.

12. ., ., г ., ., ³ . // : .

. . (, 1317.10.2003 .). . 2003.

. 51.

13. .., ., .. . : , 2010. 143 .

14. Commarmot, B., Brandli, U-B, Hamor, F., Lavnyy, V. (eds) 2013: Inventory of the Largest Primeval Beech Forest in Europe. A Swiss-Ukrainian Scientific Adventure.

Birmensdorf, Swiss Federal Research Institute WSL; Lviv, Ukrainian National Forestry University; Rakhiv, Carpathian Biosphere Reserve. 69 pp.

15. Hamor F. Conclusions of the international conference Natural forests in the temperate zone of Europe values and utilization, Mukachevo, Ukraine.//Knapp Hans D. and Andreas Fichtner (Eds.) Beech Forest Joint Natural Heritage of Europe (2). BfN-Skripten 327, 2012. . 53-57.

16. Fichtner A., Knapp H.D., Engels B. The potential for a finite serial transnational nomination of primeval and ancient beech forests of Europe to the World Heritage List // Hans D. Knapp and Andreas Fichtner (Eds.) Beech Forest: Joint Natural Heritage of Europe (2). BfN-Skripten 327, 2012. p. 9-20.

17. Swiss Federal Research Institute WSL, 2013: International Conference Primeval Beech Forests Reference Systems for the Management and Conservation of Biodiversity, Forest Resources and Ecosystem Services. June 2nd 9th, Lviv, Ukraine // Abstracts. Birmensdorf, Swiss Federal Institute for Forests, Snow and Landscape Research WSL, 144 pp.

630:630*228.8:551.583

FOREST ECONICS: MIMICKING PROCESSES & PATTERNS

IN OLD GROWTH FOREST TO PROMOTE SUSTAINABLE

FORESTRY UNDER GLOBAL CHANGE

   

Faculty of Forest and Environment, Eberswalde University for Sustainable Development, Eberswalde, Germany Hobson P.R., Ibisch P.L. Forest econics: mimicking processes & patterns in old growth forest to promote sustainable forestry under global change.

Thermodynamic theory has been applied to ecological studies to help understand and describe the complexities of ecosystem function and resilience. Ecosystems are efficient when they exhibit optimum conditions in three principal functional characteristics; biomass; information; and networks. The synergistic properties of complex structures, higher biomass storages and greater functional diversity enhance energy dissipation and storage, which provides the system with resilience. Old growth forests are rich in these functional traits and express optimum thermodynamic tendencies in the form of cooler surface temperatures and greater attenuation of temperature. Forests subjected to human-induced disturbance undergo structural and compositional simplification and this reduces the ability of the system to degrade energy. The results of a study used in this paper indicated that old-growth and mature semi-natural forests ordinate towards competitor-stress communities in contrast to secondary forests or managed stands that were more dominated by ruderal species and with fewer competitor and stress-tolerant plants. Older stands also appeared to have higher biomass in the form of living and dead wood. Surface temperatures in oldgrowth and semi-natural forest stands were significantly more attenuated than in managed forest.

The indications are for greater efficiency of energy dissipation in complex forest ecosystems. These findings have important applications to the management of forests undergoing environmental change. Forestry practices that attempt to promote higher thermodynamic function by mimicking ecological processes of natural forests are more likely to conserve eco-exergy and so enhance resilience in forests facing the impacts of climate change. The principles of forest econics are presented in the wider context of close-to-nature forestry.

.., .. ˳ : . , . , :

, . , 66 , . . ˳ , , . , , , . .



Pages:     | 1 |   ...   | 8 | 9 || 11 | 12 |   ...   | 56 |
 
 >>  . C 03.00.00
:

- . //.:..ͳ (..) .: ..,2012.242 ..192-195. 504.574.616 .., .-.. .. ˲ ò ̲ Ҳ ò 㳿 䳺...

̳ 5 2011 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists IJ ˲ в 㳿 2008 . ( 2000 .) 2010 . , . 2012 . 1. ...

̳ 2008 http://e kniga.in.ua 37.016 74.262.8 18 , 㳿 - ̳ ( 9 4.12.2009 .) . . 18 . 7 / . . , . . . . : ....

̳ . . , . . , . . , . . ò вͲ . Ͳ . ٲ вѲ ˲. 2. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). . . , . . , . . , . . 28.691.89 595.783:787+7 _ ...

̲Ͳ ò Ѳ в ֲ Ѳ Ͳֲ IJ ( ̲ ̲Ѳ) 211.1.1.106 2003 211.1.1.106-2003 1 - ̳ 2 ̳...

ֲ ͔ 1 200 ͔ ( 1 2). .: , 2006. 192. , , 㳿, , , . ͔ ( 1 2, 2006 )...

̲Ͳ ' ֲ ̲ ֲ Dzв ò . . . Ȕ вòί IJ в IJ ȯ 20 - : 㳿 . . . ...

CAMPYLOPUS INTROFLEXUS (HEDW.) BRID. ². 582.32:581.527.7+631.48 CAMPYLOPUS INTROFLEXUS (HEDW.) BRID. ² Ҳ ²˲ . . , . . 㳿 , . , 11, 79000, e-mail: stentor62@gmail.com, morphogenesis@mail.lviv.ua Campylopus introflexus (Hedw.) Brid. ...

㳿 37.037 111 (. ) . , . ...

Ͳ ϲʲ ò ( ) . . , . . , . , . , ...




( )
.: (050)697-98-00, (067)176-69-25, (063)846-28-10
׸


 
<<     |    
2013 www.uk.x-pdf.ru -