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XIV ֲ ò (, 2124 2009 .) NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF UKRAINE I. I. Schmalhausen Institute of ...

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Cladistic analysis using parsimony based on 28 morphological characters was performed to evaluate species interrelationships. The ingroup taxa included 24 species of Dactylogyrids parasitizing mullet fish. The phylogenetic hypothesis suggested that Ligophorus is monophyletic with species from Liza spp. and Chelon labrosus occupying basal positions, whereas species from Mugil cephalus tended to occur in terminal clades. Given that host phylogeny indicates that M. cephalus is sister in respect to species of Liza and Chelon, this lack of congruence between host and parasite phylogenies may suggest that Ligophorus originated in Liza Chelon and species of this genus colonized M. cephalus by host switching. A dispersal vicariance analysis applied to the resulting phylogentic hypothesis suggested that, in spite of the high host-specificity observed in Ligophours, host switching followed by speciation in the new host might have been a major force driving speciation in this genus.

TOXOPLASMOSIS IN FREE-LIVING ANIMALS

Turekov., Spik F., Hurnkov Z., Dubinsk P.

Parasitological Institue of SAS, Hlinkova 3, 040 01 Koice, Slovak Republic;

turcela@saske.sk Toxoplasmosis is a common zoonotic disease worldwide. It affects a large number of warm blooded vertebrates, with mammals being the predominant source of infection for other animals, including humans - considering its longterm survival of tissue cysts in different tissues of the body. Data on Toxoplasma gondii in free-living animals in the Slovak Republic are rather scarce and therefore the aim of our work was to determine its occurrence, to diagnose it using molecular methods and to provide the genetic characterisation of this parasite. DNA T. gondii was isolated from brain or muscles of animals and confirmed by PCR methods with TGRIE and B1 genes. The DNA of T. gondii was analysed from 47 randomly obtained red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) with prevalence 63.0 %. T. gondii was confirmed in three from four samples of racoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) (75 % prevalence). 14.3 % prevalence was detected in marten (Martes spp.) and 16.7 % in squirrel (Sciurus spp.). DNA T. gondii was confirmed only in one from three (33.3 %) samples of lynx (Lynx spp.). The prevalence of 21.4 % was recorded in wild boar (Sus scrofa). Three examined samples of mouse (Muss pp) were positive for T. gondii. No infected brown bear (Ursus arctor) nor wolf (Canis lupus) were found.

To determine the genotypes of T. gondii, SAG2 gene was digested with restriction endonuclease Sau3 AI and HhaI. The molecular methods confirmed presence the virulent strain with genotype I and less virulent genotypes III in the free-living animals. The genotype II was not detected in free-living animals yet.

These results based on the SAG2 locus identification confirmed that T. gondii is circulating among free-living animals. Nested PCR analysis at the SAG2 locus provide rapid discovery of T. gondii to a specific genotype that should be useful for analyses not only in veterinary but also in medical field.

The research was supported by the Science Grant Agency VEGA 2/0145/09, the Science Grant Agency VEGA 2/7186/27 and the Slovak Research and Development Agency under the contract No. APVV-51-027605

DYNAMICS AND DISTRIBUTION OF NEMATODES

PARASITIZING STRIPED FIELD MICE (APODEMUS

AGRARIUS) IN SOUTH-WESTERN POLAND

Zalesny G., Hildebrand J.

Department of Parasitology, Institute of Genetics and Microbiology, Wroclaw University, ul. Przybyszewskiego 63, 51148 Wrocaw, Poland;

zalesny@microb.uni.wroc.pl Rodents could play a role as an intermediate, definitive or paratenic host for many helminth species. Good accessibility and the possibility of carrying out seasonal and between-population reasearch employing the populations of free living rodents as good model for many parasitological studies. The aim of our study was to investigate the distribution and species composition of nematodes occurring in A. agrarius in Lower Silesia (Poland). Uniform development and great diversity of life-cycle with direct and indirect transmission cause that nematodes constitute a unique group of parasites. Additionally they constitute the most prevalent group of parasites within free-living rodents which ease carrying out the ecological analysis.

In present studies 226 striped field mice (Apodemus agrarius ) were surveyed for the presence of helminths.

Rodents were trapped in five sites, i.e. WroclawOsobowice, Wroclaw-Mokry Dwor, Wroclaw-Redzin, Lutomia and Ruda Milicka. During the study helminths belonging to Nematoda, Cestoda and Digenea were reported. The overall prevalence of infection amount 80.1% and differ between sites. The highest values were observed in Wroclaw-Redzin (95%) and Ruda Milicka (90%). In our study six nematode species, i.e. Trichuris muris, Heterakis spumosa, Syphacia agraria, S. stroma, Heligmosomoides polygyrus and Toxocara spp. were reported. Distribution and species composition of nematodes were various in particular sites, the mean nematode species richness amount 3.6; in Lutomia only two nematode species were reported (S. agraria and S.stroma) while in all remained sites 4 nematode species were present. The overall prevalence of infection with nematodes amount 75.7% and, similarly to prevalence of infection with helminths, differ between sites.

Our studies confirm that the presence of parasites and intensity of infection within hosts is mainly depended on local environmental conditions which could be additionally improved by between-species interactions.

_______________________________________________________

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